the Asia interactive map (data from
Afghanistan - central Asia
Saudi Arabia - western Asia
Armenia - western Asia
Azerbaijan - western Asia
Bahrein - western Asia
Bangladesh - southern Asia
Bhutan - southern Asia
Myanmar (Birmania) - south east Asia
Brunei - southern Asia
Cambodia - south east Asia
China - eastern Asia
Cyprus - western Asia
North Korea - eastern Asia
South Korea - eastern Asia
United Arab Emirates - western Asia
Philippines - south east Asia
Georgia - western Asia
Japan - eastern Asia
Jordan - western Asia
Hong Kong - eastern Asia
India - southern Asia
Indonesia - south east Asia
Iran - western Asia
Iraq - western Asia
Israel - western Asia
Kazakhstan - central Asia
Kyrgyzstan - central Asia
Kuwait - western Asia
Laos - south east Asia
Lebanon - western Asia
Maldives - southern Asia
Macau - eastern Asia
Malaysia - south east Asia
Mongolia - eastern Asia
Nepal - southern Asia
Oman - western Asia
Pakistan - southern Asia
Palestine - western Asia
Qatar - western Asia
Russia - northern Asia
Singapore - south east Asia
Syria - western Asia
Sri Lanka - southern Asia
Tajikistan - central Asia
Taiwan - eastern Asia
Thailand - south east Asia
Timor Leste - south east Asia
Turkey - western Asia
Turkmenistan - central Asia
Uzbekistan - central Asia
Vietnam - south east Asia
Yemen - western Asia
Test page


About Afghanistan
- Afghanistan, a mountainous landlocked republic in Central Asia is bordered by Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to the north, Iran in west, Pakistan in east and south and it has a small stretch of border in north east with both China and India (disputed because in Pakistan occupied Kashmir)
- With an area of about 652,000 km² it is slightly more than twice the size of Norway, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state Texas
Geography of Afghanistan
- Mountains dominate the central and eastern part of Afghanistan, covering about three-fourths of the country
- The huge Hindu Kush mountain range stretches from the northeast to the southwest, where it extends into the Koh-i-Baba mountain range, the origin of all three of Afghanistan’s major river systems, the Kabul, the Hilmand-Arghandab, and the Hari River
- In the northeastern outskirts the Hindu Kush range borders with the plateau of Pamir, and the range of Karakorum
- Highest peak of the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan is Noshaq mountain (7,492 m)
- Deserts cover the southern and western parts of the country
- A loess plateau, sloping towards the north, covers the northern part of the country
- it borders with the outskirts of the vast Karakum Desert where the lowest point of Afghanistan (259m) is situated
- The sources of most rivers lie in the mountains
- The level of water in the rivers oscillates greatly
- The highest level is in spring and early summer
- In the remaining seasons the rivers may change into small streams or entirely disappear
- The largest river flowing from the spring to the mouth of Afghanistan’s territory is the Hilmand River
- The border river in north the Amu Darya, formed by the confluence of the Pamir River and the the Vakhsh river, is the greatest and one of the most important rivers in Central Asia

The Bamiyan Valley

Saudi Arabia

About Saudi Arabia
- The map shows Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a desert country in southwestern Asia (Middle East) that occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula
- The kingdom is bounded by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea in the west and the Persian Gulf in the east
- Border countries are Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Saudi Arabia shares maritime boundaries with Egypt, Sudan, and Eritrea in the Red Sea, and with Iran, and Bahrain in the Persian Gulf
- The country is the largest Arab state with a land area of more than two million km²
- compared, the sheikdom is about four times the size of France, or somewhat larger than one quarter the size of the contiguous United States
- Saudi Arabia has a population of 34.8 million people (in 2020)
- more than 10 million people are expatriates, mainly from Asia and the Middle East
- Saudi Arabia is the homeland of Arab Bedouins and the Arabian language, the historic birthplace of Islam and the Arab-Islamic culture which originated in the towns of Mecca and Medina at the beginning of the 7th century
- The country's capital and largest city is Riyadh. Other major towns are Jiddah, Ta'if (At Taif), Dammam, Buraydah, and Al Khobar, part of the Dammam metropolitan area
- Spoken language is Arabic
Geographical Regions of Saudi Arabia
- The Arabian Desert covers large parts of the country's landscape
- The vast area consists of a number of interconnected desert regions including the An Nafud in the north, and the Rub' al Khali ("the Empty Quarter") in the southern part of the country
- The Rub' al Khali is one of the world's largest contiguous sand deserts
- The coastal plain in western Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea is known as the Tihamah, the east of the plain is dominated by the escarpments of two mountain ranges, the Hejaz and the Asir mountain range, separated by a gap in the area of Mecca.
- The highest point of Saudi Arabia is Jabal Sawda, the peak of about 3,000 m is located in the Abha region in the Asir mountains in the southwestern corner of the sheikdom.
- The one hundred kilometers wide strip of coastal plains and the western mountain ranges is known as the Hejaz ('the Barrier').
- The Hejaz separates the coastal area from the Najd, the central region of Saudi Arabia.
- The Najd is bounded to the east by the historical region of Eastern Arabia, and in the north by the Syrian Desert
- There are no rivers or bodies of water in the country, only ancient river channels, now buried by the seas of sand
- There are wadis, i.e. valleys or river courses, which often carry water temporarily only after heavy or prolonged rainfall.
- Nonrenewable fossil water from aquifers and underground rivers, water from seasonal floods, and desalinated saltwater are used for human consumption and irrigation.
- Saudi Arabia has a predominantly hot and dry environment.
- The continental climate in the interior of the country features considerable temperature differences, especially between day and night.
- In summer, maximum temperatures of 50° C are possible during the day, in winter, the freezing point can be reached at night.
- The average annual temperature is 28° C.
- Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 administrative regions (or states)
- The regions are (region capital in parenteses):
Al-Bahah State (Al-Bahah)
Al Jawf State (Sakakah)
Al-Qassim State (Buraidah)
'Asir State (Abha)
Eastern Province (Dammam)
Ha'il Region (Ha'il)
Jizan State (Jizan)
Madinah State (Medina)
Makkah State (Mecca)
Najran State (Najran)
Northern Borders Region ('Ar'ar)
Riyadh State (Riyadh)
Tabuk State (Tabuk)

Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām, the Great Mosque of Mecca. Located within the largest mosque in the world is the Kaaba, the holy shrine of Islam. Abraj Al Bait in background, a megatall hotel complex of seven skyscrapers.


About Armenia
- The map shows Armenia, a landlocked, mountainous country situated in the Caucasus at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, east of Turkey and north of Iran.
- Other border countries are Georgia to the north and Azerbaijan to the east.
- With an area of 29,743 km², Armenia is just slightly smaller than Belgium, or somewhat smaller than the U.S. state of Maryland.
- The highest peak in Armenia is Mount Aragats with a height of 4,090 m (13,419 ft)
- the stratovolcano is located in the Aragatsotn province, northwest from Yerevan
- Armenia's largest body of water is Lake Sevan (Sevana lich), one of the largest high-altitude fresh-water lakes in the world.
- Along with Lake Urmia (Iran) and Lake Van (Turkey), Lake Sevan was considered one of the three great lakes of the historical Armenian Kingdom, the 'Seas of Armenia.'
- The dominant Armenian Highland to the east of Anatolia is a plateau with a mean altitude of 1,700 m, consisting of a complex set of mountain ranges, volcanic peaks, valleys, lakes, and rivers.
- The plateau is a major water reservoir of the Middle East
- it is the headwaters of two significant rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris.
- Armenia has a population of just 3 million people (in 2015).
- Armenia's predominant religion is Christianity
- it was the first country to adopt Christianity as a state religion.
- The capital and largest city is Yerevan.
- There are two other major cities, Gyumri and Vanadzor.
Administrative Divisions of Armenia
- Armenia is divided into eight regions, six constituencies, 23 counties, and 79 municipalities.
- The eight regions are primarily used for statistical purposes.
Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan
- The map also shows the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan, which is part of Azerbaijan but is separated from the mainland by a 35 km wide Armenian land corridor.
Nagorno-Karabakh and the Republic of Artsakh
- The former autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but is now ruled by the larger Republic of Artsakh, a self-proclaimed South Caucasian country and de facto independent state with a predominantly Armenian population.
- The territory of Artsakh is disputed between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and the conflict has recently escalated, causing civilian casualties on both sides.

myths and reality in Armenia


About Azerbaijan
- The map shows Azerbaijan, a country in the Caucasus (Transcaucasia) region on the western shore of the Caspian Sea.
- Azerbaijan lies at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia and borders Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Russia, and via the exclave of Nakhichevan, which is separated from the Azerbaijani heartland by an Armenian land corridor, to Turkey.
- The former Soviet republic gained independence in 1991 and is now officially the Republic of Azerbaijan.
- The country occupies an area of 86,600 km² (33,440 sq mi), including the exclave of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region.
- In comparison, the country is slightly larger than Austria or somewhat smaller than the U.S. state of Maine.
- Azerbaijan's territory includes the exclave of the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan, which is separated from the mainland by a 35 km wide Armenian land corridor.
- Internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan is the former autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh, which is now ruled by the larger Republic of Artsakh, a de facto independent state with a predominantly Armenian population.
- The region is disputed between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is still ongoing.
- Azerbaijan has a population of 10 million people (in 2020).
- The capital and largest city is Baku. Other major cities are Ganja, Sumqayit, and Mingachevir.
- Spoken languages are Azerbaijani (Russian and English as second or third languages).
- The main religion is Islam; about 90% of the population are Muslims.
- Azerbaijan's climate zones range from arid subtropical to the mountainous tundra.
- The country is part of an ecoregion encompassing Georgia and Armenia.
Highest Peak
- With 4,466 m (14,652 ft), Mount Bazardüzü (or Bazarduzu Dagi, Kiche suv) in the Greater Caucasus range on the border between Russia and Azerbaijan, is the highest peak in Azerbaijan.
Rivers - The country's main rivers are Kura (Kur) with a length of 1,515 km, it empties into the Caspian Sea, and Aras River, a 1,072 km long tributary of the Kura. Cities and Towns in Azerbaijan
- Largest cities: Baku also Baki (pop. 2 million, capital), Ganja (pop. 313,000), Sumqayit (pop. 310,000), Mingachevir (pop. 96,000), Khirdalan (pop. 92,000)

Gobustan park


About Bahrain
- Bahrain is an island nation in the Middle East.
- The archipelago consists of the main island (Al) Bahrayn and some smaller islands and islets.
- The island state is situated in an inlet of the Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf) known as the Gulf of Bahrain, about 25 km (16 mi) to the east of the Saudi Arabian coast. Bahrain is connected to the Arabian Peninsula by a series of bridges and causeways named the King Fahd Causeway.
- Bahrain shares maritime borders with Iran, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia.
- With an area of 741 km², the island nation is slightly larger than Singapore (699 km²), or 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC.
- Like other wealthy island nations, Bahrain's area is growing due to land reclamation.
- Bahrain's geography can be described as a flat, arid desert archipelago in the Persian Gulf
- less than 3% of the country is arable land. Jabal ad Dukhan (Mountain of Smoke), the hill in the center of the Southern Governorate is the country's highest point at 134 m (440 ft)
- The kingdom has a population of 1,424,000; thereof 665,000 people are Bahraini, 759,000 were non-nationals (in 2016)
Bahrain's islands
- Bahrain Island (al-Awal Island), the country's main island is about 50 km (30 mi) long and 16 km (10 mi) wide.
- Muharraq is the name of a densely populated island and a city, situated northeast of Manama
- to the north of Muharraq's urban area lies Bahrain International Airport
- Hawar (Jazīrat Ḩawār) is an archipelago of 16 small desert islands situated off the west coast of Qatar
- the main island is Hawar
- The islands support one of the world's largest concentrations of the Socotra Cormorant
- Umm an Nasan is an island in the Gulf of Bahrain, linked with the main island by the King Fahd Causeway
- it is privately owned and off limits to ordinary people
- Bahrain International Airport (IATA Code: BIA) is located on the island of Muharraq
- it is Bahrain's only international airport
- it is the primary hub for Gulf Air, the flag carrier of Bahrain
Bahrain Administrative Divisions
- Bahrain is divided into five regions called governorates
- These governorates are: the Capital Governorate,the Central Governorate,the Muharraq Governorate,the Northern Governorate, and the Southern Governorate, which also includes the Hawar islands in the south-east of the archipelago
More about Bahrain
- Manamah (al-Manāma) is the capital and the largest city of Bahrain
- Riffa, the second largest city in Bahrain, is located in the center of the northern portion of the main island
- it is famous for the Riffa Fort, a fortress overlooking the Hunanaiya Valley
- the city is made up of West Riffa (Ar Rifa' al Gharbi) and East Riffa (Ar Rifa 'ash Sharqi)
- Muharraq (Al Muharraq), Bahrain's third largest city is situated northeast of the capital
- it is the location of Bahrain International Airport, the country's only international airport
- A'ali, the city is famous for its ancient burial mounds and its traditional handcrafted pottery
Amwaj Islands
- A group of man-made islands, a land reclamation project north-east of the airport offering waterfront properties.
- In the center sits the Lagoon Park, an artificial lagoon with coffee shops and restaurants.
- Diyar Al Muharraq, the future city with commercial and residential facilities, will cover seven artificial islands of reclaimed land.
- First inhabitants moved to the islands in 2015.
East Sitra City
- Another ongoing mega land reclamation project to the east of Sitra Island.
- Planned are residential areas, light and heavy industry plants, and military facilities.
Durrat Al Bahrain
- Durrat Al Bahrain is the kingdom's answer to Dubai's Palm Islands.
- A 20 km² reclaimed series of islets at the south-eastern tip of Bahrain's main island.
- The mini-archipelago offers luxury residential areas, townhouse villas, and tourist resorts.
- Durrat Al Bahrain will be home to over 2,000 beachfront villas, 3,600 executive apartments and offices, a luxury hotel, a spa resort, parks and entertainment grounds, mosques and international schools, premier retail malls and restaurants, a 400-berth marina and an 18-hole championship golf course

Manama view


About Bangladesh
- Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in southern Asia in the Ganges River delta on the Bay of Bengal.
- The state borders India in west, north, and east and has a small border with Myanmar (Burma) in the southeast.
- Together with the Indian state of West Bengal, it makes up the historical and geographical region of Bengal.
- With an area of 143,998 km², compared the country is slightly larger than Greece (131,957 km²) or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Iowa.
- A population of more than 168 million people (in 2019), makes Bangladesh one of the most densely populated countries in the world.
- The majority of Bangladesh's population are Muslim (about 88%). Spoken language is Bangla (or Bengali by 98%).
- Large parts of Bangladesh are in the low-lying Ganges Delta.
- The delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma), Brahmaputra (Jamuna), and Meghna rivers and their tributaries.
- The highest point in Bangladesh is in Mowdok range at 1,052 m (3,451 ft) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
- The map shows Bangladesh and surrounding countries with international borders, the national capital Dhaka (Dacca), province capitals, major cities, main roads, railroads, and major airports.
- The principal airport of Bangladesh is Zia International Airport (IATA code: DAC) at Dhaka, there are two more international airports: Shah Amanat International Airport (formerly M.A.
- Hannan Int'l) (IATA: CGP) at Chittagong and Osmani International Airport (IATA: ZYL) at Sylhet.
- Regional airports at Barisal (IATA: BZL), Cox's Bazar (IATA: CXB), and at Saidpur (IATA: SPD).

Brahmaputra River seen from Fulchhari Ghat in Gaibandha district, Rangpur Division, in Northern Bangladesh.


About Bhutan
- The map shows Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, also known as Druk Yul - the Land of Thunder Dragon.
- The kingdom is a landlocked country on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas.
- It borders the Indian states of Sikkim in the west, West Bengal and Assam in the south, and Arunachal Pradesh in the east, and it shares a border with China (Xizang - Tibet Autonomous Region) in the north.
- With an area of 38,394 km², the country is somewhat smaller than Switzerland or about half the size of the US state of Indiana.
- Bhutan's landscape is mountainous interspersed with fertile valleys; it offers a pristine environment with a spectacular biodiversity.
- The country's landscape offers three major regions. South of the outer foothills of the Himalayas along its southern border are the Dooars (Duar).
- The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands are Bhutan's very narrow portion of the subtropical and tropical alluvial floodplains of the Ganges-Brahmaputra lowlands (Indo-Gangetic Plain).
- To the north of the plains the land rises steeply, the landscape is dominated by the mountains of the Sub-Himalayan Range.
- The kingdom has one of the most rugged mountain terrains in the world.
- The 1,000 to 3,000 m high ranges of the sub-alpine Himalayan region (Outer Himalaya) are the main settlement area.
- The high mountain region lies south of the border to Tibet with hundreds of unnamed, unmapped, and unclimbed peaks.
- The Great Himalaya range is home to Bhutan's highest mountain, the 7,570 m high Gangkhar Puensum, which is most likely the highest mountain in the world which has never been climbed by a human being.
- Bhutan has a population of 742,000 inhabitants (in 2019); it is South Asia's second least populous country.
- The capital and largest city is Thimphu.
- Spoken languages are Dzongkha (official), Tshangla, Nepali, Dzala, Kheng, and other East Bodish languages.
- Thimphu, the capital and largest city of Bhutan is located on the west bank of the Thimphu Chu River (Raidāk River).
- Phuntsholing at the India-Bhutan border is the nation's financial, industrial and trading capital.
- Paro, the historic town with many sacred sites is also home to the National Museum of Bhutan.
- Punakha, the village is known for the Punakha Dzong, a 17th-century fortress at the juncture of the Puna Tsang and Mo Chhu rivers.
- Behind Phunaka Dzong is Phuntsho Pelri the King's Summer Palace and a royal museum.
- Gelephu, the third largest town in the kingdom, is located in the Sarpang district in the central-south of the country on the Indian border.
- Samdrup Jongkhar is another Bhutanese border town in the southeast of the country bordering India's Assam state.
- Bhutan is divided into twenty dzongkhags (districts)
- The Administrative Districts of Bhutan are (administrative headquarter in parentheses):
1. Bumthang (Jakar),
2. Chukha (Phuntsholing),
3. Dagana (Daga),
4. Gasa (Gasa),
5. Haa (Ha),
6. Lhuntse (Lhuntse),
7. Mongar (Mongar),
8. Paro (Paro),
9. Pemagatshel (Pema Gatshel),
10. Punakha (Punakha),
11. Samdrup Jongkhar (Samdrup Jongkhar),
12. Samtse (Samtse),
13. Sarpang (Sarpang),
14. Thimphu (Thimphu),
15. Trashigang (Trashigang),
16. Trashiyangtse (Trashi Yangtse),
17. Trongsa (Trongsa),
18. Tsirang (Damphu),
19. Wangdue Phodrang (Wangdue),
20. Zhemgang (Zhemgang).

Bhutan, mountains and mistery


About Myanmar
- The map shows Myanmar, a country also known as Burma and as the Golden Land.
- Myanmar is an extremely fascinating country with amazing people, but it has been terrorized for decades by armed forces, a military junta that violently suppresses the free will of its multi-ethnic population.
- China and Russia, known for their attitude toward democracy, prevent the United Nations from imposing sanctions on Burma's old/new rulers.
- The country is divided into seven states, seven regions (divisions), and one Union Territory.
- To put it simply (which it never is), the regions are inhabited mainly by Burmese-speaking Burmese (Bamar), while the states are inhabited by people of the respective ethnic groups.
- The country has an area of 676,578 km², which is almost twice the size of Germany or slightly smaller than the US state of Texas.
- Myanmar has a population of 55 million people (as of 2021).
- The largest city, former capital and economic center of Myanmar is Yangon (Rangoon).
- The landscape of Myanmar slopes gradually from north to south, from an altitude of 5,881 m at Mount Hkakabo (the country's highest peak) in the far north to sea level in the coastal areas in the south.
- In the west, the Indo-Burman Ranges form a natural barrier between Myanmar and India.
- In the far north of the country are the mountainous areas of the foothills of the Himalayas, the Kachin Hills, the Kumon Range and the Hengduan (Gaoligong) mountains.
- The region is home to the country's highest mountains, the Hkakabo Razi (5,881 m) and Mt. Ganlanyazi (Gam laan yazi; 5,834 m)
Myanmar's Administrative Divisions
Kachin State
- Kachin is Myanmar's northernmost state
- It borders the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh and the Chinese provinces of Tibet (Xizang) in the north and Yunnan in the east.
- The landscapes of the northern and the eastern parts of Kachin are dominated by mountainous regions, foothills of the eastern Himalayas.
- The highest peak is Hkakabo Razi (5,881 m).
- About 45 km north of the state capital Myitkyina is the confluence of the Mali Kha and the N'mai Kha
- From there on, the river is called Irrawaddy.
- The over 2,100 km long river is something like the lifeline of Myanmar.
- For centuries, the river was one of the most important waterways in the country.
- Indawgyi Lake, one of the largest lakes in Southeast Asia, is located in Mohnyin Township in Kachin.
- Kachin's capital is Myitkyina; other major towns are Putao and Bhamo.
- The third-largest state in Myanmar is relatively sparsely populated.
Sagaing Region
- Sagaing Region is located in the northwestern part of the country.
- The Pat-kai and Naga Hills form a massive natural boundary between the Sagaing Division and the Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur.
- The Chindwin River (The Mighty Chindwin), the main tributary of the Irrawaddy, flows almost entirely through Sagaing and is the most important waterway in the region.
- Sagaing Region capital is Sagaing. The former center of the ancient Sagaing Kingdom is located about 14 km southwest of Mandalay on the opposite bank of the Irrawaddy River.
- The region's largest city is Monywa.
Chin State
- The mountainous Chin State in the west of Myanmar borders Bangladesh and the Indian states of Manipur and Mizoram.
- The Tiau River forms much of the state's border with India.
- The Chin Hills dominate the region's landscape; Nat Ma Taung, also known as Mount Victoria (3,053 m), is the highest peak.
- Chin State is sparsely populated and is home to various ethnic groups known under the umbrella term Chin (Zo/Mizo/K'Cho); most of them are (Baptist) Christians, which can be attributed to the arrival of American Christian missionaries in the early 19th century.
- Spoken languages are dozens of different (unintelligible) Chin language variants, also spoken in neighboring areas of Bangladesh and India.
- The capital is Hakha, the second-largest town is Tedim, other notable towns are Mindat and Matupi.
Shan State
- Shan is the easternmost and largest state of the country.
- It borders China in the northeast; a section of the Mekong River defines its border with Laos to the southeast.
- To the south lies Thailand's Northern Region.
- There is a land border crossing at Mae Sai (Thailand) - Tachileik (Myanmar).
- The area around the Burmese, Thai and Lao border triangle is known as the "Golden Triangle."
- Shan State covers an area about twice the size of Ireland or slightly more than the US state of Georgia.
- The landscape features hilly to mountainous areas and plateaus, known as Shan hills, with elevations ranging from 300 to 2,600 m (1,000 - 8,700 ft).
- The highest peak in Shan State is Loi Leng, at 2,673 m.
- The highland is crossed by the deep gorge of the Salween (Thanlwin) River.
- The Myitnge River (Nam Tu) drains the northern Shan Plateau and empties into the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy).
- State capital and largest city is Taunggyi, located about 20 km northeast of Inle Lake, a scenic destination and major tourist trap.
- Other urban areas of considerable size are Lashio and Kengtung.
Mandalay Region
- The Mandalay Region is located in the center of the country; the Irrawaddy River forms most of its border with the Sagaing Region.
- The capital and largest city is Mandalay, Myanmar's second city.
- It is served by Mandalay International Airport (IATA: MDL), one of only three international airports in the country.
- Mandalay Region is home to some of Myanmar's major tourist attractions.
- The city of Mandalay itself with the rebuilt Mandalay Palace (the replica is kind of a Burmese Disneyland), the Mahamuni Paya, an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, and the wooden Shwe in bin Monastery.
- Mount Popa, an extinct volcano adorned with numerous gilded Nat (spirits) temples and relic sites.
- And there is Bagan, the ancient Buddhist temple city with over 2,200 temples and pagodas.
- When Myanmar opened to tourism in 1992, Bagan was the destination for expensive river cruises.
- Today, the UNESCO World Heritage Site looks more like a tourist amusement park with balloon rides and pizza restaurants and serves as a backdrop for fashion photos and as a place for mass celebrations of sunsets.
Magway Region
- The Magway Region is situated mainly in the Irrawaddy River valley.
- The river defines a section of the region's border with the Mandalay Division and flows then through its center.
- In the west, the Rakhine (Arakan) mountains form most of Magway's borders with the Rakhine and Chin regions.
- The division capital is Magway; the largest city is Pakokku.
- Most of Magway's major towns are located along the Irrawaddy River, such as the oil-producing town of Chauk, which forms an urban center together with Seikphyu.
- Other river ports are Aunglan, Yenangyaung, Thayet, and Minbu.
Naypyidaw Union Territory
- Naypyidaw Union Territory was formerly part of the Mandalay Division.
- The territory is the location of the country's brand-new artificial administrative capital and the seat of the government of Myanmar.
- Nay Pyi Taw is home to the Union Parliament, the Supreme Court, the Presidential Palace and several golf courses.
- The cityscape is completed by a variety of 4-star hotels, a 20-lane semi-deserted highway, various pagodas, among them, a replica of the Mahabodhi Temple of Bodh Gaya (India), several reservoirs, a water fountain park, a 'general' hospital, Naypyitaw Airport, empty shopping malls, a convention center, and various ministries and military facilities.
Kayah State - Small mountainous Kayah State, aka Karenni State, borders Thailand's Mae Hong Son Province in the east.
- The capital and largest city is Loikaw.
- Kayah was originally the homeland of the Kayah people, also known as Karenni or Red Karen.
- At the time of the British occupation, the Kayah lived in a largely autonomous kingdom, which was incorporated into the Union of Burma in 1947.
- It is Myanmar's least populous division.
- The Thanlwin (Thanlyin/Salween) River crosses the state from northeast to southwest.
- Rakhine State in the southwest of Myanmar has a coastline on the Bay of Bengal with countless smaller islands, cliffs, sandbanks and bay shoals.
- Ramree is the largest island on the Rakhine Coast.
- Near the town of Thandwe is Ngapali, until now the country's most famous beach.
- Nearby, Cheduba (Manaung) Island could become the next holiday destination.
- The capital city of Rakhine is Sittwe, from there you can take a boat to the medieval town of Mrauk U.
Bago Region
- The western third of the Bago region in south-central Myanmar (Lower Burma) is predominantly flat.
- The Pegu (Bago) Range dominates the sparsely populated hilly center.
- Along the mountains eastern edge runs the new, 586 km long Yangon–Mandalay Expressway, currently the most important transport route in the country that connects Myanmar's largest city Yangon and Mandalay, the second-largest city.
- Bago's eastern third borders the rugged mountains of the Kayin State.
- In the south, the region has a 60 km long coastline along the Gulf of Martaban.
- The capital and principal city is Bago. Other urban centers are Pyay and Taungoo.
Ayeyarwady Region
- The Ayeyarwady Region in the mainland's south is also known as the Delta Region.
- The coastal region, about half the size of Ireland, lies between the Bay of Bengal and the Gulf of Martaban and refers to the vast estuary of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady), Myanmar's main river.
- The delta area is known as the "Granary of Burma," the principal crop is rice. Pathein is the largest city and the capital of the Ayeyarwady Region.
- In the west, at the Bay of Bengal, there are two popular beach resorts, Ngwesaung and Chaungtha Beach.
- The country's highest deforestation rate threatens the ecosystem of the delta.
Yangon Region
- The relatively small Yangon Division surrounds the former capital Yangon (Rangoon) and borders the Gulf of Martaban.
- The Yangon/Bago river connects Myanmar's largest city with the Andaman Sea.
- A mixture of colonial architecture, modern skyscrapers, small-scale industry areas, gilded Buddhist pagodas and noisy, heavy traffic greets the region's visitors.
Kayin State
- The Kayin State, or Karen State, is home to several ethnic Karen groups such as the Sgaw, the Pwo, the Bwe, and the Paku Karen (Kayin).
- The mountainous state borders Thailand in the east.
- Hpa-An is the capital city.
- The region is known for its hot springs, mist-shrouded mountains and its many caves, the most visited of which is the huge Sadan Cave south of Hpa-An.
- To the west of Kayin is the Myawaddy/Mae Sot border crossing, one of the official road border crossings for foreigners.
- In the town of Payathonzu in the southeast, there is another border crossing to the Thai province of Kanchanaburi at the Three Pagodas Pass in the Tenasserim Hills.
Mon State
- Mon State in the south of the country stretches along the Gulf of Martaban and the Andaman Sea.
- It is home to Mon people, considered the oldest ethnic group living in present-day Burma.
- The Dawna Range in the east forms a natural border between the Mon State and the Kayin State.
- State capital is Mawlamyine, other urban centers are Thaton, Kyaikkami, and Ye.
- The small town of Kyaikto is famous as the home to the Kyaiktiyo Pagoda, better known as the Golden Rock.
Tanintharyi Region
- Tanintharyi Region is Myanmar's southernmost region; it covers the Burmese part of the Malay Peninsula and borders Thailand in the west.
- The region's main geographical features are the Andaman Sea and the Mergui Archipelago to the west, and the Tenasserim Hills to the east.
- The region's capital is Dawei. Other major towns are Bokpyin, Kawthaung, and Myeik. In the far south is the Kawthaung/Ranong land crossing (actually by boat) into Thailand.

Ancient temples in Myanmar


- Brunei, a small oil-rich sultanate along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia.
- Brunei consists of two non-contiguous parts divided by a portion of the Malaysian state of Sarawak.
- The country shares maritime borders with China and Malaysia.
- Brunei has claimed a continental shelf/exclusive economic zone stretching 200 nautical miles from its coast, which extends Brunei territorial waters deep into the middle of the South China Sea.
- Brunei occupies an area of of 5,765 km², the country is slightly larger than twice the size of Luxembourg, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Delaware.
- The country has a population of of 417,200 people (in 2015).
- National capital is Bandar Seri Begawan.
- Spoken languages are Bahasa Melayu (Malay, official), English, Chinese and native languages of Borneo.
- In 2014 Brunei became the first East Asian country to adopt strict Islamic sharia law.
- Get an overview of Brunei's art, culture, people, environment, geography, history, economy and its government.
- The Sultanate of Brunei's heyday occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries, when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines.
- Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy.
- In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984.
- Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the less developed countries.
- The same family has now ruled in Brunei for over six centuries.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

Brunei, luxury and tropical forests


About Cambodia
- Cambodia is a country located in the southeastern part of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia, it shares borders with Vietnam to the east and south, Laos in northeast, Thailand in west/northwest, and is bordered by the Gulf of Thailand in southwest.
- With an area of 181,000 km² Cambodia is about half the size of Germany or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
- Cambodia has a population of about 14.7 million inhabitants.
- Capital city is Phnom Penh.
- Spoken languages are, predominantly (90%) Khmer, a Mon–Khmer language, and Vietnamese (5%).
- Cambodia is divided into 24 provinces (khaet), they are the country's first-level administrative divisions.

Angkor Wat, one of the most important religious monuments in the world


About China
- The map shows the provinces of China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), a vast country in East Asia.
- The PRC is bounded by the East China Sea, the Korea Bay, the Yellow Sea, and the South China Sea.
- China borders 14 countries: Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Vietnam.
- The country shares maritime borders with Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan.
- Due to China's claims in the South China Sea, the state also maintains overlapping maritime borders with Brunei and Malaysia.
- The People's Republic covers an area of 9,597,000 km², making it the fourth largest country on Earth
- it is just somewhat smaller than the United States, and 1.25 times the size of Australia
- China has a population of around 1.42 billion people (in 2019), making it the world's most populous country
Administrative Divisions
- The People's Republic of China is divided into 33 administrative regions, there are 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two special administrative regions (SAR)
- Additionally, China claims sovereignty over the territory administered by Taiwan (Republic of China ), claiming most of it as its Taiwan Province
List of China's administrative divisions (Capitals in parentheses)
- Municipalities (Zhixia Shi) 北京 Beijing, 重庆 Chongqing, 上海 Shanghai, and 天津 Tianjin. These are self-governing districts under the direct jurisdiction of the central government. Autonomous Regions (Zizhiqu) An administrative region where the minority (Chinese Han) is the majority in the local government and congress. 广西 Guangxi (Nanning)
内蒙古 Nei Menggu (Inner Mongolia, capital: Hohhot)
宁夏 Ningxia (Yinchuan)
西藏 Xizang (Tibet, capital: Lhasa)
新疆 Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Ürümqi)
Cina1 Cina2 Cina3 Cina4

Beautiful chinese landscapes


About Cyprus
- The map shows the island of Cyprus in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Cyprus is located about 80 km (50 mi) south of the coast of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and east of the island of Crete (Greece.)
- The third largest island in the Mediterranean has a land area of 9,251 km². 5,896 km² (2,276 sq mi) are under the control of the Republic of Cyprus
- 3,355 km² (1,295 sq mi) are de facto under the administration of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Population - Cyprus has a population of almost 1.2 million people live on the island.
- 875,900 people live in the Republic of Cyprus (in 2018), 326,000 in Northern Cyprus (in 2017) Spoken languages are Greek and Turkish.
- Since 1974, Cyprus has been divided de facto into the Cyprus government-controlled area in the southern part of the island, officially named the Republic of Cyprus, and the Turkish Cypriot area in the north.
- A United Nations peacekeeping force (UNFICYP) maintaines a buffer zone between them. UNFICYP was established in 1964 to prevent a recurrence of fighting between Greek Cypriots and the Turkish Cypriots.
- The mandate for UNFICYP was last renewed on 31 January 2019 and extends until 31 July 2019
- Furthermore, there are two small British Overseas Territories on the island, Akrotiri and Dhekelia
- they are administered as Sovereign Base Areas (S.B.A.) of the United Kingdom
- They are small remnants of British occupation of the island from 1878 to 1960.


North Korea

About North Korea - A country in eastern Asia that occupies the northern part of the Korean peninsula which is located south of mainland China, between the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in the east, Korea Bay and Yellow Sea in west
- North Korea is bordered by China in north, and it has a 18 km long border with Russia in north east.
- North Korea occupies an area of 120,538 km², compared it is about half the size of the United Kingdom (242,900 km²) or somewhat larger than half the size of the U.S. state of Utah (219,882 km²)
- North Korea has a population 25 million (est. 2017), capital and largest city is Pyongyang, official language is Korean
Administrative Provinces of North Korea
Chagang Province (Chagang-do); Capital: Kanggye
Hamgyŏng North Province (Hamgyŏng-pukto); Capital: Chongjin
Hamgyŏng South Province (Hamgyŏng-namdo); Capital: Hamhŭng
Hwanghae North Province (Hwanghae-pukto); Capital: Sariwŏn
Hwanghae South Province (Hwanghae-namdo); Capital: Haeju
Kangwŏn Province (Kangwŏn-Do); Capital: Wŏnsan
P'yŏngan North Province (P'yŏngan-pukto); Capital: Sinŭiju
P'yŏngan South Province (P'yŏngan-namdo); Capital: P'yŏngsŏng
Ryanggang Province (Ryanggang-do) also spelled Yanggang; Capital:Hyesan
Following World War II, Korea was split with the northern half coming under Communist domination and the southern portion becoming Western oriented.
KIM Chong-il has ruled North Korea since his father and the country's founder, president KIM Il-sung, died in 1994.
After decades of mismanagement, the North relies heavily on international food aid to feed its population, while continuing to expend resources to maintain an army of about 1 million.
North Korea's long-range missile development and research into nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community.
Nord Corea

Pyongyang, the North Korea capital

South Korea

About South Korea
- South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), a country in eastern Asia that occupies the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is located between the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in east, the Yellow Sea in west, and the Korea Strait, a sea passage between South Korea and Japan in the south.
- South Korea has a land border with North Korea in north.
- The country also shares maritime borders with China and Japan.
- With an area of 99,678 km² the country is about the size of Iceland, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.
- South Korea has a population of 50.8 million inhabitants (in 2016), largest city and capital is Seoul, Busan is South Korea's second city and a major port.
- Official language is Korean.
More about South Korea
- The Korean Peninsula extends southward from the northeastern part of the Asian continent.
- The country has a long history and proud tradition.
- Buddhism and Confucianism have influenced the nation's society and culture.
- Koreans, like many other Asian peoples, are descendants of the Mongolian Tungus stock.
- They differ from the neighboring Japanese and Chinese, however, in that Koreans are a homogeneous ethnic group with their own language, culture, and customs.
- Over the last several decades, South Korea has transformed herself from an agrarian society to an industrial leader on the world economic scene.
- Progress is being made in education, science and technology and social welfare.
- In 2002 South Korea has co-hosted, the FIFA World Cup™ tournament.
- After World War II, a republic was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula (in August 15, 1945) while a communist-style government was installed in the north.
- The Korean War (1950-53) had US and other UN forces intervene to defend South Korea from North Korean attacks supported by the Chinese.
- An armistice was signed in 1953 splitting the peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel.
- Thereafter, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth, with per capita income rising to 13 times the level of North Korea.
- In 1997, the nation suffered a severe financial crisis from which it continues to make a solid recovery.
- South Korea has also maintained its commitment to democratize its political processes.
- In June 2000, a historic first south-north summit took place between the south's then President KIM Dae-jung and the north's leader KIM Chong-il.
- In December 2000, President KIM Dae-jung won the Noble Peace Prize for his lifelong commitment to democracy and human rights in Asia.
- He was the first Korean to win a Nobel Prize.
Sud Corea

South Korea turns pink during the festival of the trees

United Arab Emirates

About the United Arab Emirates
- The United Arab Emirates is one of the Persian Gulf States, a desert country in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula with a coastline at the Persian Gulf (Arab Gulf) and the Gulf of Oman.
- The UAE is bordering Oman and Saudi Arabia and has maritime borders with Iran.
- There is a disputed region in the west of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi
- therefore it is unclear if the UAE actually has a border with Qatar
- The coastal region of today UAE was known for a long time as the Pirate Coast.
- The seafaring inhabitants made a living by pirating trade vessels in the area.
- The loose federation of sheikdoms came under British administration in the mid 19th century, then known as the Trucial States until 1971, with the independence from the UK.
- The UAE came into existence in December 1971 when six emirates formed a federation: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al-Quwain, and Fujairah
- Ras Al Khaimah joined the alliance in 1972
- With an area of 83,600 km², the United Arab Emirates is about the size of Austria, or slightly smaller than the US State of Maine
- The country consists mostly of barren landscape with gravel plains and desert dunes, interspersed with some oases, best known is Liwa Oasis, north of the Rub' al Khali, the Empty Quarter, the largest sand desert in the world.
- Along the coast stretches a strip of marshes (sabkha;) low-lying saline flats, lagoons, intertidal mudflats, and mangrove swamps.
- There is a mountainous region in the northeast; Jabal Yibir (1,527 m) the countries highest point is situated there.
- The United Arab Emirates has a population of 9.37 million people (in 2018), with the male population being twice as large as the female population.
- The capital city of the UAE is Abu Dhabi; the largest city is Dubai.
- Spoken languages are an Emirates variant of Arabic, English is in use.
Administrative Divisions of UAE
The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates, their capitals have the same name as the emirate:
(see the map)
(1) Abu Dhabi
(2) Ajman: 1 exclave
(3) Dubai: 1 exclave
(4) Fujairah: 2 exclaves
(5) Ras al-Khaimah: 1 exclave
(6) Sharjah: 3 exclaves
(7) Umm al-Quwain
Areas under joint control:
(8) Fujairah and Sharjah
(9) Oman and Ajman
Disputed Areas:
The islands of Lesser Tunb, Greater Tunb, and Abu Musa are under Iranian administration but claimed by UAE.
Emirati Arabi

The desert, very close to Abu Dhabi


About Philippines
- The map shows the islands of the Philippines in Maritime Southeast Asia.
- The archipelago lies to the east of the South China Sea and west of the Philippine Sea and the western Pacific Ocean.
- Nearby countries are Malaysia in the southwest, Indonesia in the south, Vietnam in the west, and Taiwan, and mainland China to the north.
- The Philippines shares maritime borders with China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Palau, Taiwan (ROC), and Vietnam.
- The Philippines are an island group of over 7,500 islands; the main islands are Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Leyte, Samar, Negros, and Panay.
- Most of the Philippine islands are of volcanic origin.
- The archipelago is situated within the Southeast Asian part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area of intense volcanic and seismic activities.
- Along the eastern side of the islands runs the Philippine Trench, a submarine trench in the floor of the Philippine Sea.
- The Galathea Depth within the underwater canyon is one of the deepest depths of the ocean at 10,540 m (34,580 feet).
- With an elevation of 2,954 meters (9,692 ft), the potentially-active stratovolcano Mount Apo on the island of Mindanao is the highest mountain in the country.
- With a total area of 300,000 km², the country is about the size of Italy or slightly larger than the US state of Arizona.
- A population of nearly 108 million people (in 2020) making the Philippines the world's 13th most populous country.
- The nation's capital is Manila, located on Luzon island within a densely populated conglomerate of several other major cities.
- Together they form Metro Manila, also known as the National Capital Region (NCR). 12.8 million people live in Metro Manila.
- The country's spoken languages are Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English.
- Philippines tropical climate has three "seasons," from March to May it is hot and dry, the rainy season is from June to October, from November to February the climate is moderate and its the best time to visit the island state.

Manila view


About Georgia
- Map is showing Georgia, the south Caucasian country between Russia in north and Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan in south, the country borders the Black Sea in west.
- With an area of 69,700 km², the country compared is about the size of Ireland, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of South Carolina.
- Georgia's landscape is largely mountainous, the Great Caucasus Mountain Range spans all along its northern border with Russia.
- In the central and southern part of the country runs the Lesser Caucasus range parallel to the Greater Caucasus, connected by the Likhi Range.
- On Georgia's eastern coast of the Black Sean is fertile Colchis (Kolkhet'is Dablobi) an ancient lowland, known to the Romans as the kingdom of Medea and the Golden fleece, the destination of the Argonauts.
- The Kura River (Mtkvari) has its source in the Lesser Caucasus in Turkey and flows eastward to the Caspian Sea.
- The river was an important water source for many civilizations along its flood plains and fertile valleys, it was navigable up to Tbilisi, until the Soviet Union started building many dams and canals on the river in the 1950s.
- Today (2015) Georgia has a population of 3.7 million inhabitants. Capital city is Tbilisi.
- Spoken languages are Georgian (official), Russian, and Armenian.
- Depicted are region capitals, major towns, main roads, railroads and major airports.
- Principal airport of Georgia is Tbilisi International Airport (IATA code TBS) - Border Countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkey

Svaneti towers, Georgia


About Japan
- The map shows a representation of Japan, a country in eastern Asia that occupies a chain of islands between the Sea of Japan (East Sea) and the North Pacific Ocean east of the Korean Peninsula
- The island nation stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea in the south
- Japan shares maritime borders with PR China, North Korea, South Korea, the Philippines, Russia, Northern Mariana Islands (United States), and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
- Depicted on the map are Japan's main islands, from north to south: Hokkaido (北海道), Honshu (本州), Shikoku (四国), and Kyushu (九州)
- With an area of 377,915 km², spread across more than 6,800 islands, Japan is somewhat larger than Germany or slightly smaller than the US state of California
- About three-fourths of the country is mountainous
- the highest mountain is Mount Fuji, an active volcano at 3,776 m (12,389 ft)
- Due to an inhospitable landscape, large areas are unhabitable and not suitable for agricultural or industrial use, which results in a high population density in its urban agglomerations
- The country has a slowly shrinking population of today 126.2 million inhabitants (in 2019)
- Most of Japan's urban centers are located near the coast
- The national capital is Tokyo
- The official language is Japanese
- Main religions are Shintoism and Buddhism

Mount Fuji, the Japan symbol


About Jordan
- The map shows Jordan, a desert country in the Middle East with a short coastline at the Strait of Aqaba.
- The almost landlocked country is situated east of the Jordan River, on the Arabian Peninsula.
- The nation's official name is the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
- The kingdom is bordered by Syria in the north, by Iraq in the northeast, by Saudi Arabia in east and south
- the Jordan Rift Valley of the Jordan River separates the country from a portion of the Palestinian territories (the West Bank) and Israel.
- With an area of 89,342 km², the country is slightly smaller than Portugal, or somewhat smaller than the U.S. state of Indiana.
- Jordan consists mainly of a plateau with elevations between 700 and 1,200 m.
- The tableland is divided into ridges by valleys and gorges, and a few mountainous areas.
- The East Bank (east of the Jordan river), as the opposite of the West Bank, is also known as Transjordan or the Transjordanian Highlands, with a mostly desert landscape.
- Oases and seasonal water streams irrigate the country.
- Jordan's elevation extremes are Jabal Umm al Dami, the country's highest mountain with an elevation of 1,854 m (6,083 ft)
- its top is covered with snow, the country's lowest point is below sea level, the Dead Sea at -420 m (-1,378 ft).
- Jordan has a population of just over 10 million people (in 2019); the capital and largest city is Amman
- the official language is Arabic.
Jordan's largest cities
Amman, capital of Jordan and the center of a large continuous urban sprawl.
- The city is home to several ancient ruins, like the pillars of the Roman Temple of Hercules and the 8th-century palace complex from the Umayyad period.
Irbid, the kingdom's second largest urban settlement lies in northern Jordan.
- The university town is also a main industrial and administrative center.
Zarqa, the Blue City, is part of the extended metropolitan area of Amman
- it was founded at the beginning of the 20th century by Chechen immigrants.
- Nearby is Zarqa camp, the oldest Palestine refugee camp in Jordan.
Between Amman and Zarqa lies Russeifa, an industrial city and part of Amman's wider metropolitan area.
Al Quwaysimah, administrative a city, lies in the southeastern part of the urban sprawl of Amman.
Ajloun, capital of the governorate of the same name, a hilly town with about 10,000 inhabitants is known to be home to the 12th-century Muslim Ajloun Castle.
Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal city, is located on the Gulf of Aqaba.
- The port city plays a significant role in the development of the nation's economy.

Jordan: the Wadi Rum

Hong Kong

- Hong Kong è una città della Cina meridionale, posta a sud-est di Guangzhou (Canton) ed è tornata alla Cina nel 1997.
- La Cina s'è impegnata a mantenere per i prossimi 50 anni lo status speciale che Hong Kong aveva sotto la corona britannica, il territorio è formato da una penisola ed alcune isole nel Mar Cinese Meridionale
- l'economia è basata sul terziario, in special modo su commercio e traffici internazionali
Forma di governo Regione Amministrativa Speciale Cinese
Superficie 1.108 Km²
Popolazione 7.337.000 ab. (censimento 2016) 7.501.000 ab. (stime 2020)
Densità 6.769 ab/Km²
Capitale Hong Kong (7.345.000 ab.)
Moneta Dollaro di Hong Kong
Indice di sviluppo umano 0,939 (4° posto)
Lingua Cinese, Inglese (entrambi ufficiali)
Speranza di vita M 82 anni, F 88 anni
- Il territorio di Hong Kong è dato da una penisola ed oltre 200 fra isole ed isolotti nel Mar Cinese Meridionale, è in gran parte montuoso e collinare ed è stato urbanizzato per circa il 25%, mentre il 40% è sotto tutela ambientale.
- Lantau (147 Km²) è la maggiore delle isole, seguono Hong Kong (79 Km²), Lamma (13,5 Km²) e Chek Lap Kok (12,5 Km²), in origine molto più piccola (3 Km²), ma trasformata ed ampliata dall'uomo per ospitare il nuovo aeroporto internazionale; le coste si sviluppano per 733 chilometri in tutto.
- Nella parte peninsulare di Hong Kong si raggiungono quasi i mille metri col monte Tai Mo Shan (957 m.), ma anche su Lantau vi sono altezze massime di poco inferiori, Fung Wong Shan (934 m.).
- Vista la limitata superficie i corsi d'acqua hanno carattere torrentizio e raggiungono velocemente il mare, oppure confluiscono nello Sham Chun, che segna buona parte del confine col resto della Cina
- i bacini lacustri sono quasi tutti di origine artificiale.
- Il clima è subtropicale a regime monsonico, con una stagione secca e più fresca fra Novembre e Marzo ed una più calda e piovosa nei mesi estivi.
- Dopo essere passato alla Cina Hong Kong è diventato una regione amministrativa speciale, gli uffici governativi sono ubicati nella zona chiamata Central nella città di Victoria ed è suddiviso in 18 distretti
- La popolazione è per buona parte di etnia cinese (93,5%), le due minoranze più rappresentate sono quella indonesiana (2%) e filippina (2%)
- il 50% degli abitanti non è religioso, il 21% professa il buddhismo, il 14% il taoismo, il 12% il cristianesimo.

About India
- The map shows India, officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), a country in South Asia which occupies the best part of the Indian subcontinent.
- The peninsula is bounded by the Laccadive Sea (Indian Ocean) in the south, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Bay of Bengal in the east.
Border Countries
- India borders Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Nepal, and Pakistan, and it shares maritime borders with Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Maldives.
- The distance from the country's northern border to it southern coastline is 2,930 km (1,820 mi), and from the west coast of Gujarat to the border with Bangladesh in the east 2,040 km (1,267 mi).
- India covers an area of 3,287,263 km², making it the 7th largest country in the world, compared it is about 45% of the size of Australia, about 40% the size of the contiguous USA, or one third the size of Europe.
- India is the second most populated country on the planet. 1.36 billion people (in 2019), almost one-fifth of the world's population, live on the Indian subcontinent.
- India's population is quite diverse with two thousand ethnic groups, four major language families, and more than 120 languages, however, more than 40% of the Indians speak Hindi, besides English, both official languages of the country.
India's most striking Geographical Features
- The Himalayas in the north, the buildup of the mountain range with some of the highest peaks on Earth was initiated approximately 50-60 million years ago when India’s landmass collided with the enormous Eurasian Plate.
- The impact created a mountain-building assembly line at the collision zone.
- The northern rim of the Indian-Plate slowly thrust under the Eurasian Plate, crustal rock from the surface of the arriving landmass was sheared off horizontally, this rock retained on the future peninsula and assembled the mountain chain we know now.
- The Ganges (Hindi: Ganga), is the 2,500 km (1,560 mi) long holy river of the Hindu people.
- The river's source is in the southern Great Himalayas from where it flows northwest to southeast through the flat and fertile terrain of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the northern part of India; it empties into the Bay of Bengal.
- The Sundarbans, the world's largest coastal mangrove forest is shared between India and Bangladesh, located in a region at the mouth of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers.
- De facto the most biologically productive natural ecosystems on the planet is considered to be one of the natural wonders of the world, it is since 1987 a UNESCO World Heritage Site (Sundarbans National Park and The Sundarbans).
- The mangrove habitat with its forests and its networks of waterways and river islands is home to a wide range of fauna and -- the single largest population of tigers in the world.
Thar Desert
- You might never have heard of the fact that there is a vast desert with shifting dunes, sand hillocks, scrub vegetation, camels, and all in India.
- Anyway, there is, it is known as the Thar Desert or the Great Indian Desert, located in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent just north of the Tropic of Cancer, for the most part in Rajasthan state extending into Pakistan.
- The desert is on the same latitude than the Sahara or the Arabian Desert and covers an area about the size of the United Kingdom.
Andaman Islands
- The Andaman Islands (Andaman and Nicobar Islands), a long stretched archipelago which expands over 1,000 km north to south in the Andaman Sea south of Myanmar.
- Lush tropical forests cover about 90 percent of the islands' landscape; the island's jungles preserve a rich biodiversity.
- The Andaman Islands to the north consists of four main islands and 200 small, mostly uninhabited islets.
- They are separated from the Nicobar Islands by the Ten Degree Channel in the south.
- The Nicobar islands are the original homeland for two tribal communities (Nicobarese and Shompen).
- Foreigners are banned from the Nicobar Islands, but tourists are welcomed at the capital of Port Blair on Andaman.
Eastern Mountain Range
- The Eastern Mountain Range is an arc of mountains and hills that forms a barrier between the Indian subcontinent and Myanmar.
- The range extends from the northern Himalaya mountains to the southern tip of the Rakhine (Arakan) Peninsula, where they continue under the sea and reappear as the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- The mountain chain was formed as the result of orogenic movement during the Cretaceous and Eocene era, in times long before India became a part of Asia.
- The mountains consist of old crystalline rocks embedded in sedimentary rocks.
- The arched range is known by several different names, as the Rakhine Mountains (Rakhine Yoma), also called Arakan Mountains, the several sections are better known (from north to south) as the Patkai range (Patkai Bum), the Naga Hills, the Chin Hills, the Mizo or Lushai hills, and (again) the Rakhine Mountains (Arakan Mountains).
- The highest point is Mount Saramati at 3,826 m (12,552 ft.), located in India at the India-Myanmar border.
India-Myanmar Border
- Along the Eastern Mountain Range runs the India-Myanmar border.
- There is a unique feature about the border, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Manipur have the Free Movement Regime (FMR) which allows the tribes living along both sides of the border and share a common cultural heritage, to travel 16-km across the boundary without visa restrictions.
- But since years India tries to close its porous 1643 km long border by building a fence (no, not a wall) to curtail insurgency, and the smuggling of goods, arms, drugs, and counterfeit Indian currency.
- The situation is made worse by the Rohingya crisis and may be an excuse for India to tighten border control.
India India India India

India, the land of wonders


About Indonesia
- The map shows Indonesia, an island nation in Maritime Southeast Asia straddling the equator between the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean in the north and the Indian Ocean in the south.
- The country consists of some 17,000 islands in the Malay Archipelago, the marine region is also known as Maritime Southeast Asia, East Indies, Indonesian Archipelago, and Spices Archipelago.
- Indonesia has land borders with Malaysia (on the island of Borneo), Papua New Guinea (on the island of New Guinea), and Timor-Leste (on Timor island).
- The nation shares maritime borders with eight neighboring countries, Australia, India, Palau, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and China
- due to Chinese territorial claims in the South China Sea, there are overlapping maritime boundaries between the two nations around the Riau Islands.
- The whole island chain sits on the south-western section of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a subduction zone where the Indo-Australian and the Pacific Plate are pushed under the Eurasian plate, causing volcanic eruptions and earthquakes which may generate Tsunamis (seismic sea waves).
- Indonesia is made up of several island groups.
- The Greater Sunda Islands include Indonesia's largest islands, Sumatra, Java, Borneo (shared with Malaysia and Brunei) and Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes)
- The chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands comprise six large and numerous small islands located east of Java, including Bali, Lombok, Flores, Alor, Weta, Sumbawa, Sumba, Savu, Roti, and Timor, they form a volcanic island arc.
- The Maluku Islands, also known as the Moluccas, are an a between Sulawesi in the west and New Guinea island in the east.
- The Moluccas consist of over 1000 islands; the largest two are Halmahera and Seram.
- New Guinea is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland.
- The independent nation of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia share the island.
- The western half of New Guinea island was formerly known as "Dutch New Guinea"
- it is occupied by the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.
Indonesia's Largest Cities
- Jakarta is the capital and Indonesia's largest urban agglomeration with more than 10 million inhabitants
- it consists of five administrative cities (Kota) which form the Special Capital Region of Jakarta.
- Other major cities are Surabaya, Medan, Bekasi, Bandung, Makassar, Depo, and Semarang
Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia

Indonesia, the various faces of the country


About Iran
- The map shows Iran, an Islamic state between the Caspian Sea in the north and the Persian Gulf in the south.
- The country is officially named the Islamic Republic of Iran. Until the 1980s in the Western world, Persia was historically the common name for Iran.
- Persia was a monarchy until 1979 when the last Persian Shah Reza Pahlavi was overthrown in a popular uprising, headed by Ayatollah Khomeini.
- Iran borders Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan.
- It shares maritime borders with Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
- With an area of 1,648,195 km², Iran is almost three times the size of France or somewhat smaller than the US state of Alaska.
- Large parts of the country occupy the Iranian Plateau (or Persian Plateau, a geological formation in Western and Central Asia).
- A broad portion of Iran's coastal regions at the Persian Gulf is part of the Arabian plate.
- The highest mountain in Iran is Mount Damavand at 5,610 m (18,410 ft), a potentially active volcano in the Alborz mountain range south of the Caspian Sea, about 70 km northeast of Tehran.
- Most rivers in Iran are relatively short, shallow streams, the only navigable river is the Karun (Karoun) with a length of 725 km.
- The country has a population of 82 million people (est. 2019).
- The largest city and capital is Tehran.
- Other major cities are Mashhad, Isfahan, Karaj (a suburb of Tehran), Tabriz, Shiraz, Ahvaz, and Qom. Spoken language is Persian (Farsi, official).
- The official religion is Shia Islam.
Iran's largest cities
Tehran, the capital of Iran, is located in the foothills of the Alborz Mountains. It replaced Isfahan as the capital of Persia in 1788.
Mashhad, the nation's second most populous city and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province is located in the northeast of the country, near the borders with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan.
Mashhad was an important oasis along the ancient Silk Road.
Isfahan is an industrial city in central Iran. It was the capital of Persia from 1598 until 1722.
Tabriz, the capital city of East Azerbaijan Province in northwestern Iran lies at the center of an active volcanic region.
- It is one of the historical capitals of Persia.
Shiraz, the capital of the Fars province, is a gateway to Persepolis, the ruined 6th-century-BC ceremonial capital of Persia under the Achaemenid dynasty.
Ahvaz, the capital city of Khuzestan province, is an industrial city at the Karun river with a population of about 1.2 million people.
Qom, the capital of Qom province, is considered holy by Shia Islam, the city is home to the shrine of Fatimah bint Musa, the sister of Ali al-Ridha (Imam Reza), a descendant of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, the founder of Islam.
Province capitals
Iran is subdivided into thirty-one provinces, below are the names of their capital cities:
Ahvaz, Arak, Ardabil, Bandar Abbas, Birjand, Bojnord, Bushehr, Gorgan, Hamadan, Ilam, Isfahan, Karaj, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorramabad, Mashhad, Qazvin, Qom, Rasht, Sanandaj, Sari, Semnan, Shahr-e Kord, Shiraz, Tabriz, Tehran, Urmia, Yasuj, Yazd, Zahedan, and Zanjan.

Iran, a thousand and one Persia


About Iraq
- The map shows Iraq, an almost landlocked country in the Middle East.
- Iraq has a short coastline at the Persian Gulf.
- The region lies within the Fertile Crescent
- it is crossed by the river system of Euphrates and Tigris.
- Iraq was home to the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the "Land Between the Rivers," also known as the land of Shinar in the Hebrew Bible.
- The Tigris and Euphrates valley was the site where humans invented urban living, the wheel, and writing, and it is one of the assumed locations of the Garden of Eden.
- Iraq borders Turkey, Iran, Syria, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia.
- The territory of today Iraq was very sought-after
- it was the center of several consecutive empires the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, and the Babylonian empire.
- The Romans went there, the Persians, the Mongols, and the Greeks.
- The country became successively part of the Arab Islamic Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid caliphates.
- In the 16th-century the land was integrated into the Ottoman Empire.
- From the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries, the course of Iraqi history was affected by continuing conflicts between the Safavid Empire in Iran and the Ottoman Turks
- After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by the United Kingdom.
- In 1920 it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration, the country gained independence from the UK in 1932.
- With an area of 438,317 km², Iraq is somewhat smaller than France, or slightly larger than the US state of California.
- Iraq has a population of about 40 million people (in 2019), major ethnic groups are Arabs (75-80%), Kurds (15%), and Turkmens.
- Capital and largest city is Baghdad.
- The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish
- other spoken languages are Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic), and Armenian. The official religion is Islam
Major cities in Iraq
Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, is located on the Tigris River.
- The city was for some time the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, then known as Madinat al-Salam (city of peace).
- It was built between 762–767; the town became a center for Arabic science and trade and was home to the House of Wisdom, a library and public academy.
Basra, Iraq's main port and economic capital is situated at the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud) river, about 100 km from the Persian Gulf.
Kirkuk is an industrial city situated in the borderland between predominantly Arab Iraq and the Kurdistan region in northern Iraq.
- The city is an important center of Iraq's oil industry and the "capital of Iraqi culture."
Najaf (an-Najaf al-Ashraf) lies on the Euphrates River in southern Iraq.
- The city is considered sacred by Shi'a Muslims
- it is home to the shrine of Ali, the fourth Rashidun and the prophet Muhammad's son-in-law.
- Within the metropolitan area of Najaf lies Kufa, a prominent historic city and famous for the Great Mosque of Kufa.
Kufic, the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts, was developed in the town.
Sulaymaniyah (Slemani) is the capital of a Kurdish governorate of the same name in northeastern Iraq.
- The cultural capital of South Kurdistan is often described as a "cosmopolitan city."
- It is a popular tourist destination surrounded by several mountain ranges.
Hillah is a city in the center of the nation, located on the on the Al-Ḥillah river, the eastern branch of the Euphrates River.
- The capital of the Babil Governorate is located adjacent to the ancient city of Babylon.
Amarah (al-'Amarah), the former Ottoman military outpost is located in south-eastern Iraq at the site where the Tigris branches into two river arms.
- It is the capital of the Maysan Governorate.
Nasiriyah, the capital of the Dhi Qar Governorate, was founded in the 19th-century.
- The city is situated in the southeastern part of the country on the banks of the Euphrates River.
- Nasiriyah lies close to the ruins of the ancient Sumerian city-state of Ur.
Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate and considered a holy city for Shi'ite Muslims.
- The city is home to the Imam Husayn Shrine, where Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad is buried.
Samarra, the former Abbasid capital is situated on the east bank of the Tigris in the Saladin Governorate.
- The Al-Askari Mosque at Samarra contains the tombs of the 10th and 11th imams revered by Shia pilgrims.
- Samarra Archaeological CityUNESCO official website is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Sarpole-Zahab in the Kirmasan province, Iraq


About Israel
- The map shows Israel, officially the State of Israel, a country in the Middle East with a coastline at the Mediterranean Sea in the west.
- Jews, Christians, and Muslims regard the region as the biblical Holy Land.
- Israel is bordered by Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories (West Bank and the Gaza Strip) it shares maritime borders with Cyprus.
- The borders with Syria (Golan Heights), Lebanon (Shebaa farms) and the Palestinian territories (declared as the State of Palestine) are still disputed.
- With an area of 22,072 km², the country is slightly larger than half the size of Denmark, or somewhat larger than the US state of New Jersey.
- Israel has a population of 8.95 million people (Nov 2018), spoken languages are Hebrew and Arabic.
- Designated capital is Jerusalem, the country's largest and most populous city.
- However, Israel's sovereignty over Jerusalem is internationally disputed.
- The country's second largest city is Tel Aviv
- it is Israel's economic capital
- the city is host to almost all foreign diplomatic missions, embassies, and consulates in the country
- Israel is divided into six main administrative districts (in parentheses: District Capital):
1. Northern District (Nazareth), includes the Israeli-occupied territory of the Golan Heights
2. Haifa district (Haifa)
3. Central district (Ramla)
4. Tel Aviv district (Tel Aviv)
5. Jerusalem District (Jerusalem), includes East Jerusalem
6. Southern district (Beersheba.)

Jerusalem, the old city


About Kazakhstan
- Map is showing Kazakhstan, a republic in Central Asia, south of Russia, that extends east from the Caspian Sea to the Altai Mountains and China
- Until 1991 Kazakhstan was one of the Soviet republics.
- The area of Kazakhstan west of the Ural river (in Kazakhstan known as Zhayyq) is geographically, if not politically, located within Europe.
- Border countries are China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
- An area of 2,724,900 km² makes Kazakhstan to the largest landlocked country in the world, even though it has a shoreline at the Caspian Sea, but no access to the high seas.
- Compared it is almost the size of Argentina or slightly less than four times the size of the US state of Texas.
- The multiethnic country has a population of 17,7 million people (in 2016), making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world.
- Vast regions of the territory of the republic are uninhabited.
- Since December 1997 Kazakhstan's capital city is Astana (Астана).
- Almaty (Алматы), formerly Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата), is the largest city and the former capital of the country.
- Spoken languages are Kazakh and Russian. Main religion is Islam (70%).
Kazakhstan's Main Geographical Features
- Kazakhstan's landscape offers also some superlatives, the Kazakh Steppe, a vast semi-desert region of open grassland in the north of the country is a section of the Eurasian Steppe belt, the world’s largest dry steppe region.
- Situated between the Caspian Sea and Aral Lake is the Ustyurt Plateau, a stony high plain desert with an average elevation of 150 m. To the south lies the Turan Lowland, a low-lying desert southeast of the Aral Sea, which extends into Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
- To the west of lake Balkhash is Betpak-Dala, a flat, gently rolling desert region with some shallow, mostly saline lakes.
- In the center of the country are the hilly Kazakh Uplands, an undulating almost featureless plain that covers approximately one-fifth of the country.
- Situated within the Uplands is Saryarka, a region known as the 'Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan' the Saryarka is since 2008 a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- Major Lakes are the Aral Sea, it is fed by the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya, the Aral was once one of the four largest lakes in the world, shared between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
- Since the 1960s the lake is continuously shrinking, today it had declined to just 10% of its original size, due to former Soviet irrigation projects.
- Lake Balkhash in the south east is a large continental lake, five rivers drain into the lake, the greatest volume of the inflow is from the Ili River.
- Khan Tengri 7,010 m (23,000 ft), is the second-highest mountain in the Tian Shan range and the highest peak in Kazakhstan.

Stone castles in Kazakhstan


About Kyrgyzstan
- Map is showing Kyrgyzstan, a landlocked mountainous country in Central Asia.
- Border countries are Kazakhstan to the north, People's Republic of China to the southeast, Tajikistan to the southwest, and Uzbekistan to the west.
- Capital city is Bishkek.
- A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864
- it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991
Current concerns include:
- privatization of state-owned enterprises
- expansion of democracy and political freedoms
- inter-ethnic relations
- terrorism

Kyrgyzstan, mountains and nomads


About Kuwait
- The map shows Kuwait, officially the State of Kuwait, a desert country in the north-eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula.
- The emirate borders Iraq and Saudi Arabia, it is bounded by the Persian Gulf in the east, and it shares maritime borders with Iran.
- With an area of 17,818 km², Kuwait is about half the size of the Netherlands or slightly smaller than the US state of New Jersey.
- The emirate has a population of 4.6 million people (in 2019), about 70% are foreigners and 30% Kuwaiti.
- Capital and largest city is Al Kuwait, also known as Kuwait City.
- Al Kuwait is at the center of a sprawling metropolis which extends along the deep harbor of Kuwait Bay in the west, and the Persian Gulf to the south.
- The rest of the country is rather uninhabited.
- There are two rural areas with farming activities, Abdali in the north, and Wafrah in the south.
- The country's official language is Arabic; due to the large number of expats, the lingua franca is English.
- As mentioned above, Kuwait is a desert country in the Middle East
- Its climate is hot and dry year-round. Summers are very hot
- the winter months are cooler and the best time for travel
- Kuwait was founded in the mid-18-century by tribal Arabs
- They settled on the southern edge of a bay (now known as Kuwait Bay) near the estuary of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers (Shatt al-Arab).
- It was the perfect place to start a business.
- The settlement became a commercial way station, exchanging goods, services, and people between ships coming from India and Southern Arabia with the camel caravans of northern Arabia and Mesopotamia
- Today Kuwait's economy runs on petroleum. Oil reserves were discovered at the end of the 1930s
- The country's principal export product is petroleum
- Petrodollar made the country's elite immensely wealthy
- Kuwait's modern infrastructure is built primarily by imported foreign workers and contractors.

Kuwait City


About Laos
- The map shows Laos or Lao PDR, a landlocked country on the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
- The land was formerly part of French Indochina, which encompassed present-day Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.
- Laos also borders Thailand in the west, China in the north, and Myanmar (Burma) in the northwest.
- The country became independent from France in 1953, but for most of the next 25 years, it was torn by civil strife between the communist Pathet Lao movement and supporters of the Royal Lao Government.
- In 1975, the Pathet Lao achieved total control and established a communist republic.
- Similar to neighboring communist Vietnam, the country saw a gradual return to free enterprise at the end of the 20th century.
- Laos covers an area of 236,800 km², compared it is slightly saller than half the size of France or about twice the size of the US state of Pennsylvania.
- It is the only Southeast Asian country without direct access to the sea.
- The country's landscape is mostly mountainous; along the Mekong River extend fertile plains.
- The river forms a long section of the Thai-Lao border.
- The Khone Phapheng Falls south of Si Phan Don (4000 islands) and near the border to Cambodia is the largest waterfall in all of Southeast Asia
- The falls are the main reason that the Mekong is not fully navigable into China.
- Mountains and plateaus make up three-quarters of the country's total area.
- Phou Bia at 2,820 m, located on the Phou Ane Plateau in Xieng Khouang Province is the highest mountain in Laos.
- The country has a population of 7 million inhabitants (in 2019 est.).
- The capital and largest city is Vientiane (Viang Chan) with an estimated population of 700,000 people.
- Spoken languages are Laotian (official), Thai, and various ethnic languages including Mong Njua and Khmu.

Northern Laos, Vang Vieng


About Lebanon
- The map shows Lebanon, officially the Lebanese Republic, a mountainous country in the Levant with a coastline on the eastern Mediterranean Sea.
- Lebanon borders Israel in the south, Syria in the north and the Anti-Lebanon mountains form for long stretches the border between Lebanon and Syria in the east.
- The country also shares maritime borders with Cyprus.
- The smallest nation on the Asian mainland covers an area of 10,400 km², compared it is about one-third the size of Belgium or about one-third the size of the US state of Maryland.
- Lebanon has a population of about 6.1 million people (in 2019) including approximately 1.5 million refugees from Syria and Palestine.
- The majority of the Lebanese people live on or near the Mediterranean coast.
- The country's national capital and largest city is Beirut. Spoken language is Lebanese Arabic.
- Lebanon has the most religiously diverse society in the Middle East, main religions are Islam (58%), followed by Christianity (36%), and Lebanese Druze faith (5%).
Lebanon's main geographical features
- Lebanon has a narrow coastal strip along the Mediterranean Sea.
- The coast is home to most of the larger cities and towns of the country.
- Agriculture in the region produces fruits and vegetables.
- Mount Lebanon is a mountain range that dominates the entire country
- it extends along the Mediterranean coast for about 160 km (100 mi).
- Located within the range is Qurnat As Sawda, the Levant's highest mountain, at an elevation of 3,093 m (10,148 ft).
- The Anti-Lebanon mountains, the "Eastern Mountains of Lebanon" is a mountain range in the east of the country.
- Along its crest runs the Lebanon-Syria border.
- The Beqaa Valley (Al-Biqā) is a high plateau at an average elevation of 1000 m, situated between the Mount Lebanon range to the west and Anti-Lebanon mountains to the east.
- The northeasternmost extension of the Great Rift Valley is a major farming region
- it contains nearly half of Lebanon’s arable land. - Lebanon is divided into eight governorates (muhafazah, Arabic: محافظات ).
- These governorates are from the north to the south (capitals in brackets):
Akkar (Halba)
North Governorate (ash Shamal; capital is Tripoli)
Baalbek-Hermel (Baalbek)
Mount Lebanon (Baabda)
Beirut Governorate (Beirut)
Beqaa Governorate (Zahle)
Nabatieh Governorate (Nabatiye)
South Governorate (Sidon)
The nation's capital Beirut, the city with an estimated population of between 1 and 2 million people is situated on a peninsula of the Mediterranean coast.
Tripoli, a seaport in northern Lebanon (not to be confused with Tripoli, the capital of Libya).
Zahlé (Zaḥlah), a city with about 120,000 inhabitants is situated in the transition zone between the eastern foothills of Mount Sannine (Lebanon mountains) and the Beqaa plateau.
Sidon was an important center of trade for the Phoenicians and later for the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
- The Bible describes Sidon in several passages.
- The city was conquered by the crusader ruler Baldwin I in 1110.
- Today it is the capital of Libanon's South Governorate.
Aley (Aalay) is a major Druze city also known as 'Capital of the Mountains'
- it is located on Mount Lebanon, about 18 km southeast of Beirut.
Tyre (Sur), the city is situated on a peninsula
- it was an important trade center for centuries and for some time the capital of the Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
- Tyre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1984
Baalbek (Baʿlabakk) at the foothills of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains in the Beqaa Valley was named for Baal, the Phoenician deity, the Greeks called it Heliopolis.
- The former Phoenician city is the site of a number of outstanding Roman ruins.
- Baalbek is a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1984.
Byblos (Jbail) is a small city at the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
- it was a port and trade center of the Phoenician civilization.
- The town was continuously inhabited since 5000 BC.
- Byblos is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Lebanon, the Switzerland of the Middle East


About Maldives
- The Maldives are an island nation in the Laccadive Sea (part of the Indian Ocean), located about 430 km (265 mi) southwest of India.
- The islands are actually the peaks of a vast submarine mountain range the Chagos-Maldives-Laccadive Ridge, a volcanic ridge and oceanic plateau extending between the Northern and the Central Indian Ocean.
- The Republic of the Maldives share maritime borders with India, Sri Lanka and the British Indian Ocean Territory (United Kingdom).
- The archipelago consists of a chain of atolls spread on a length of 860 km from north to south, crossing the equator.
- The country is made up of about 1200 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls spread over an area of 90,000 km², that's about the size of Portugal, or an area slightly larger than that of the U.S. state of Minnesota.
- Despite that size, just 1% of the island nation consists of land where people can live, just 300 km² (115 sq mi).
- The Maldives are the smallest Asian country in both land area and population.
- The Maldive Islands have a population of approximately 330,000 people (est. 2012), that's about as much as people live in the city of Santa Ana, California, or in the city of Leicester (UK).
- Capital and largest city is Malé with a population of 100,000 located on the North Malé Atoll.
- Spoken language is Maldivian, an Indo-Aryan language, spoken almost exclusively on the Maldives.

Malè, Maldives capital


- Ex-colonia portoghese Macao è tornata alla Cina nel 1999, col mantenimento però di uno statuto speciale per altri 50 anni.
- Macao si trova nel sud della Cina, una cinquantina di km ad ovest di Hong Kong; oltre all'area urbana dell'omonima città comprende le isole di Taipa e Coloane.
- Forma di governo Regione Amministrativa Speciale Cinese
Superficie 31,3 Km²
Popolazione 651.000 ab. (censimento 2016) 696.000 ab. (stime 2020)
Densità 22.236 ab/Km²
Capitale Macao (522.000 ab.)
Moneta Pataca di Macao
Lingua Cinese, Portoghese (entrambe ufficiali)
Speranza di vita M 81 anni, F 87 anni
- Macao si trova sul Mar Cinese Meridionale, nella parte occidentale del delta del fiume Zhu Jiang (2.400 Km) e comprende oltre all'omonima penisola le due isole di Taipa (8,6 Km²) e Coloane (7,6 Km²), collegate fra loro da qualche anno dal Cotai, un'area di terraferma di 5,2 Km² creata artificialmente dall'uomo.
- Il territorio è in prevalenza pianeggiante, anche se vi sono diverse colline, la più alta si trova nella parte meridionale dell'isola di Coloane (171 metri); lo sviluppo costiero è di 51 chilometri.
- Il clima è di tipo subtropicale ed è influenzato dai monsoni, con una stagione secca e più fresca fra Novembre e Febbraio ed una umida e piovosa da Aprile a Settembre, inframezzate da brevi periodi transitori.
- Oltre alla città di Macao (522.000 ab.) divisa in 5 distretti, fanno parte del territorio Taipa (105.000 ab.) e Coloane (26.700 ab.), che corrispondono alle omonime isole.
- Il 95% della popolazione è Cinese, solo il 2% ha origine Portoghese
- non ci sono dati recenti precisi sulle religioni professate, ma circa il 90% degli abitanti è buddhista, con minoranze soprattutto cristiane.

About Malaysia
- The map shows Malaysia, a country in Maritime Southeast Asia that consists of two parts, Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) on the southern part of the Malay Peninsula and Malaysian Borneo (East Malaysia) on the northern third of the island of Borneo, the third-largest island in the world.
- Peninsular Malaysia borders the South China Sea in the east and Singapore at its tip in the south.
- It borders Thailand to the north and has a coastline on the Strait of Malacca, the strait between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra to the west.
- East Malaysia on Borneo borders the South China Sea in the northwest, the Sulu Sea in the northeast, Kalimantan (Indonesia) in the south and the Celebes Sea in the southeast.
- Within the Malaysian part of Borneo lies the small, oil-rich Sultanate of Brunei.
- Malaysia covers a total area of 329,847 km², compared; the country is somewhat larger than Norway or slightly larger than the US state of New Mexico.
- Multi-ethnic Malaysia has a population of 33 million people (2021).
- The largest population groups in Malaysia are Malays (60%), Chinese (20%) and Indians (6%).
- The country is home to more than 130 living languages; the official language is Bahasa Malaysia (Melayu/Malay).
- The main spoken languages in Malaysia are Malay, Mandarin, Tamil, and some English, especially in tourist destinations.
- Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and the largest urban agglomeration in the country, has a population of 7.5 million people.
- Seberang Perai is a city in Penang state opposite Penang Island; the city is part of the Greater Penang Conurbation, the country's second-most populous metropolitan area.
- George Town, the capital of Penang state, is among Malaysia's most populous cities.
- Kajang, Klang, Shah Alam, Petaling Jaya, Selayang and Subang Jaya are densely populated urban areas in the Klang Valley
- The cities are part of the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area (Greater Kuala Lumpur) but are located in the state of Selangor.
- Ipoh, the capital city of Perak state, is located about 200 km north of Kuala Lumpur on the Kinta River.
- The city has a population of about 800,000 people.
- Johor Baru, the capital of the state of Johor, is the economic center of Johor
- It is located at the lower end of the peninsula on the Strait of Johor, opposite Singapore.
- Iskandar Puteri is the southernmost city of the Malay Peninsula; it forms a large urban agglomeration together with other cities adjacent to Johor Bahru.
- Seremban is a city southeast of Kuala Lumpur and the capital of the state of Negeri Sembilan.
- Malacca City (also spelled Melaka) is the capital of the coastal state of Malacca, in southwestern Malaysia.
- The oldest Malaysian city on the Straits of Malacca has been a port and trading city for several hundred years.
- Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- The highest mountain on the Malay Peninsula is Mount Tahan (at 2,187 m).
- The highest peak in Malaysia is Mount Kinabalu (at 4,095 m), located in the State of Sabah on Borneo, close to the island's northern tip.
- The mountain and the Kinabalu Park surrounding it are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- Due to Malaysia's geography, its rivers are comparatively short.
- The longest river in Malaysia is the Rajang River (565 km; 350 mi) in Sarawak (Borneo). A little shorter is the Kinabatangan River (560 km; 350 mi) northeastern Sabah state.
- The Pahang River (459 km; 285 mi) in Pahang state is the longest river in Peninsular Malaysia.

Malaysia, where east and west meet


About Mongolia
- Mongolia is a vast and sparsely populated, landlocked country in eastern Asia between Russia to the north and China to the south, east of Kazakhstan
- With an area of 1,564,100 km² Mongolia is twice the size of Turkey or slightly smaller than Alaska
- The country is known as the "Land of the Eternal Blue Sky" and as the "Land of the Horse"
- The geography of Mongolia offers a variety of landscapes, even if much of the country consists of steppes, there is the Gobi Desert to the south and the more cooler and mountainous regions with the lush grassy steppe area of the Khangai Mountains to the north and the the Altai mountain range in west and south west
- Highest mountain is Khüiten Peak of Nayramadlin Orgil mountain (Huyten Orgil) with 4,374 m in the western corner of Mongolia
- Capital city of Mongolia is Ulaanbaatar (also Ulan Bator; pop. 1 million)
- Official language is Mongolian

Mongolia, the Land of the Eternal Blue Sky


- Nepal, the former Kingdom in the Himalayas between India and China.
- Officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia bordered by the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Sikkim, and in north by Tibet.
- The country along the southern slopes of the Himalayan mountain range is host to eight of the 10 highest peaks in the world, including Mount Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, and Kanchenjunga (on the border to Sikkim).
- With an area of 147,181 km² Nepal is slightly larger than 1.5 times the size of Portugal, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of Arkansas.
- Nepal has a population 31 million (2016 est.).
- Largest city and national capital is Kathmandu.
- Spoken languages: about half of the population speaks the official language Nepali, the rest is using one of the several other Tibeto-Burman languages.
Country Profile - Nepal, the landlocked multiethnic, multilingual, multi-religious country, is situated north of India in the Himalayas, in the region where, about 40 to 50 million years ago, the Indian subcontinent has crashed into Asia.
- Because of that accident, Nepal has some of the world's highest mountains including Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest, 8848m, which it shares with Tibet (by now a province of China).
- The highest mountain on Earth is towering above populated valleys and forested plains.
- Somewhere here in the Kapilavastu district, there is a place called Lumbini where in about 500 B.C.E.
- Queen Mayadevi is said to have given birth to Siddhartha Gautama, better known as Buddha.
- Nepal can be divided broadly into three ecological zones: the lowland, the midland and the highland.
- The altitude of the Himalayan Region (the highland) ranges between 4877 m - 8848 m
- It includes 8 of the highest 14 summits in the world, which exceed altitude of 8000 meters including Mount Everest.
- The mountain region accounts for about 64 percent of total land area, which is formed by the Mahabharat range that soars up to 4877 m and the lower Churia range.
- The lowland Terai, the flat river plain of the Ganges with a belt of marshy grasslands, savannas, and forests, occupies about 17 percent of the total land area of the country.

Himalaya mountain range, view from summit of Mera Peak in Nepal's Sagarmatha Zone. Mount Everest, Lhotse and Lhotse Shar (hidden by clouds, left), Peak 41 in center with Baruntse behind; Makalu (8,485 m) and Mount Chamlang (7321 m) to the right.


About Oman
- The map shows Oman, a sultanate in the south-eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula
- Oman borders Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen; it shares maritime borders with Iran and Pakistan.
- The country is bounded by the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman
- at the Musandam Peninsula it borders the Strait of Hormuz and the Persian Gulf
- With an area of 309,500 km², the sultanate is slightly smaller than Poland, or somewhat larger than the US state of Arizona.
- Oman has a population of 4.7 million people (in 2019, Omanis 2.6 million (56%); Expatriates 2 million (44%)).
- The capital and largest city is Muscat (pop. more than 600,000).
- Spoken languages are Arabic (official) and Swahili.
Governorates and governorate capitals
The Sultanate of Oman is divided into eleven governorates (muhafazah)
1. Ad Dakhiliyah: Nizwa
2. Ad Dhahirah: Ibri
3. Al Batinah North: Sohar
4. Al Batinah South: Rustaq
5. Al Buraimi: Al-Buraimi
6. Al Wusta: Haima (Hayma)
7. Ash Sharqiyah North: Ibra
8. Ash Sharqiyah South: Sur
9. Dhofar (Ẓufār): Salalah
10. Muscat: Muscat
11. Musandam: Khasab

Muscat and the Middle East charm


- "Palestinian territories" and "occupied Palestinian territories" (OPT or oPt) refers to the territories of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel
- The State of Palestine is a de jure sovereign state in the Middle East consisting of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
- The "State of Palestine" is officially recognized by the United Nations as a Non-Member Observer State, the status was granted on 29 November 2012.
- The state's designated capital is East Jerusalem, however the administrative center is located in the city of Ramallah (West Bank).
- The State of Palestine is recognized by more than 130 countries worldwide, but not by France, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Spain and Switzerland
- The estimated population in mid-2016 in Palestine is about 4.81 million people
Gaza Strip
- A strip of land with a coastline at the Mediterranean Sea, the small self-governing Palestinian territory is bordered by Egypt (Rafah border crossing) and by Israel.
- 1.9 million Palestinian Arabs live in Gaza Strip (est. 2017), Gaza City is the largest city and the administrative center of the Gaza Governorate.
- Spoken languages are Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by many Palestinians), English (widely understood).
- Main religion is Islam, 98.0 - 99.0%. (predominantly Sunni).
West Bank
- The West Bank is a landlocked rugged territory in the Mediterranean Region, west of Jordan, on three sides surrounded by Israel
- The West Bank occupies an area of 5,860 km², making it slightly larger than twice the size of Luxembourg, or slightly smaller than the US state of Delaware
- The territory has a population of 3 million people (est. 2017), about 390,000 Israeli settlers live in the West Bank (2016)
- Spoken languages are Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many Palestinians), English (widely understood)
- Main religions are Islam 80-85% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 12-14%, Christian 1-2.5% (mainly Greek Orthodox)
- In December 2016 the United Nations Security Council voted 14 to 0 to condemn Israeli settlements in the West Bank
- The United States, which often vetoes resolutions critical of Israel, abstained and allowed the resolution to pass
- The council also called upon all States to distinguish, in their relevant dealings, between the territory of the State of Israel and the territories occupied since 1967
- Despite that call, in December 2017, sitting US President Donald Trump recognized unilateral Jerusalem as the capital of Israel - and set off an avalanche of international criticism and protests
- The State of Palestine is a member of the League of Arab States

About Pakistan
- The map shows Pakistan, a country located in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia.
- The Muslim nation's official name is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
- The Arabian Sea bounds the state in the south; it borders Afghanistan, China, India, and Iran.
- Pakistan occupies an area of 796,095 km², compared it is slightly larger than Turkey (783,562 km²) or somewhat less than twice the size of the U.S. state of California.
- Pakistan is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population of 208 million people (data from PBoS, 2018).
- The federal capital is Islamabad. Main port, largest city and economic hub is Karachi; the second largest city is Lahore.
- Other major Pakistani cities are Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Multan, Gujranwala, Hyderabad, Peshawar, and Quetta.
- Spoken languages are Urdu, English (both official), Punjabi, Sindhi, and Pashto.
More about Pakistan
- Pakistan came into being on 14 August 1947 out of Muslim-majority territories in the northeastern and northwestern parts of British India.
- Initially, the country consisted of two parts of the former territory of British India; Pakistan was split in 1971 when the eastern portion seceded and became the Republic of Bangladesh.
- Pakistan's terrain is characterized by the flat Indus plain (part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain), crossed by the Indus river and its tributaries.
- The Indus is the country's longest river and an essential water resource, but it also causes floods and mudflows.
- Pakistan's area northeast of the capital Islamabad is dominated by mountains of the Himalayas, known as the Karakoram, the second highest mountain range in the world.
- The highest peak in the country is K2 with 8,611 m; it is the second-highest mountain on Earth, located on the border between Pakistan and China in the Himalayas.
- The mountain is also known as Mt. Godwin-Austen, Chhogori/Qogir, and Ketu/Kechu.
- Wedged between the Arabian and the Indian tectonic plates is the Iranian Plateau; the Pakistani portion of the plateau is known as the Balochistan plateau, part of the Eurasian Plate.
- Balochistan is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Cities and Towns in Pakistan
- Depicted on the map are the location of following Pakistani cities and towns (ordered by provinces, province capital in parentheses):
Gilgit-Baltistan (Gilgit) Chitral, Mardan, Saidu, and Skardu.
North-West Frontier Province or Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Peshawar) Tank, Bannu, Mardan, Chitral, and Saidu.
Azad Kashmir (Muzaffarabad)
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Peshawar) Parachinar
Punjab (Lahore) Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhang Sadr, Kasur, Multan, Rahimyar Khan, Rawalpindi, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Shujaabad, and Sialkot.
Balochistan (Quetta)
Jiwani, Gwadar, Pasni, Ormara, Panjgur, Surab, Nok Kundi, Sibi, Chaman, Zhob, Dalbandin, Khuzdar, Belaurbat, and Hoshab.
Sind (Karachi) Jacobabad, Shikarpur, Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Nawabshaw, Khairpur, Larkana, Sukkur, Sanghar, Matli, Thatta, Moro, and Dadu.

The Attabad lake, Pakistan


About Qatar
- Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sheikhdom that occupies a promontory of the Arabian Peninsula on the western coast of the Persian Gulf.
- Countries with international borders to Qatar are Saudi Arabia
- it shares maritime borders with Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain
- The Qatar peninsula is approximately 188 km (117 mi) long and 85 km (53 mi) wide, it covers an area of about 11,570 km² (4468 sq mi), compared it is about one quarter the size of Estonia, or slightly smaller than the US state of Connecticut.
- The country includes a small number of islands, reefs, and shoals in the coastal waters of the peninsula.
- In the near future, Qatar could become an island if Saudi Arabia's intent to build a channel alongside the Saudi-Qatari border, from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Salwa see the light of day
- Qatar has a population of 2.7 million people (Qataris and Non-Qataris)
- only about 25% of the country's citizens are women (in 2019)
- Capital city of Qatar is Doha (Ad Dawhah, pop 400,000).
- Spoken language is Arabic (official)
Qatar's Primary Administrative Divisions
- Qatar is divided into eight baladiyat (sing: baladiyah; municipalities).
- These municipalities are: Al Shamal, Al Khor & Al Thakhira, Al Daayen, Umm Salal, Al Rayyan, Doha (Ad Dawhah), Al Sheehaniya, and Al Wakra.
- Largest cities in Qatar are Doha, Al Rayyan, Umm Şalāl Muḩammad, Al Wakrah, Al Khor, Ash Shīḩānīyah, Dukhān, Musay‘īd, Madīnat ash Shamāl, and Al Wukayr.

Qatar: where technology and tradition meet


About the Russian Federation
- Map is showing the Russian Federation, which came into existence on 25 December 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
- The country, which is commonly known as Russia, is located partly in eastern Europe and partly in northern Asia, bordering the Arctic Ocean in north.
- Russian Federation, is the new name of the country of what is left of the Soviet Union, after the breakaway of some of its republics.
- Russia is bordered in west by Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. Russia borders Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea in south.
- Additionally the country shares maritime borders with Sweden, Japan (by the Sea of Okhotsk) and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait.
- With an area of 17,098,242 km² the country is somewhat larger than twice the size of the contiguous United States, it is still the largest country in the world, covering more than 11% of Earth's inhabited areas.
Geography of Russia
- But vast regions of the country were uninhabited or uninhabitable.
- Russia is a country with a very low population density (8.5 people/km², compared Germany 226 people/km², USA about 33 people/km²).
- But still, Russia has a population of 144 million people (in 2015).
- Moscow is the capital and core of political power and the center of culture, and trade, St. Petersburg is the second largest city.
- Everything geographical of the Russian Federation is gigantic, about 7,500 km from its western borders at Kaliningrad Oblast to the the tip of Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East at the Bering Street, 11 of the world's 24 time zones, 21 national republics, 41 ethnic groups with more than 100,000 people (7 of them have more than 1 million), 37,653 km of coastline, 22,400 km of borders, and as already mentioned, it is the largest country in the world.
- The Russian landscape offers a variety of regions. West of the Ural mountain range, which separates the Asian and European part of the country, lies the European Plain, with Moscow in the center. It is the most populous part of the country.
- The Greater Caucasus Range in south west, between the southern Black Sea and the western coast of the Caspian Sea, forms Russia's border with Georgia.
- Within the Caucasus Mountains located is Mount Elbrus (Gora Elbrus), Europe's highest mountain at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is also the highest peak in Russia.
- East of the Ural Mountains lies the West Siberian Plain.
- The largest area of continuous lowlands in the world is bounded by the Kara Sea in north, by the Kazakh Uplands and the Altai Mountains in south and by the Yenisey River valley and the Central Siberian Plateau in east.
- Further east of Russia its getting mountainous, with the Stanovoy Mountains, Yablonovy Mountains, the Verkhoyansk Range, the Sikhote-Alin mountain range, the Kolyma Mountains, and the mountainous Kamchatka Peninsula with its coastline at the Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk.
Russia Russia Russia

Where the history and the landscape make a magic atmosphere


About Singapore
- Singapore is a country in Southeast Asia that consists of the island of Singapore (linked by a causeway to the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula) and about 54 smaller islands.
- The city-state, officially the Republic of Singapore, is situated 137 kilometers (85 mi) north of the equator, and just south of Peninsular Malaysia.
- In south the Strait of Singapore separates the island from the Riau Archipelago of Indonesia.
- Singapore occupies an area of 718 km², compared, it is slightly smaller than Bahrain or slightly larger than 3.5 times the size of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC.
- Singapore has a population of 5.5 million people (in 2015). Just north of the city state lies Johor Bahru, capital city of the Malayan state of Johor and second largest city in Malaysia.
- The total population of the Singapore-Johor Bahru conurbation is 6.6 million.
- Official languages of Singapore are Malay, Mandarin and Tamil, also official language is English which is used as lingua franca between the various population groups.
- Established as a trading post under the East India Company in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles, Singapore came under British colonial rule in 1867, it became first a British Crown Colony in 1946 and then a self-governing state within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1959.
- Federated with Malaysia in 1963, it declared full independence two years later.
- Since then the city has been developed into one of the wealthiest countries in Asia, in terms of GNI per capita, it ranks after Hong Kong and Japan.
- Border Countries are Malaysia and Indonesia.

Singapore city


About Syria
- The map shows Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, a country in the Middle East, with a coastline on the eastern Mediterranean Sea
- It borders Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey, and it shares maritime borders with Cyprus
- Syria covers an area of 185,180 km²
- this is about twice the size of Portugal or slightly larger than the U.S. state of North Dakota
- Syria has a declining population since 2010; an estimated 18 million people live in the country
- approximately five million people are refugees outside of Syria (in 2019)
- The capital and largest city is Damascus
- other major cities are Aleppo, Homs, Daraa, Latakia, Raqqa, and Deir ez-Zor
- Spoken languages are Arabic, English, and French are widely understood, other languages in use are Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, and Circassian
- Since March 2011, fighting in Syria has killed an estimated 465,000 people, injured more than a million and displaced some 12 million people, almost half of the country's pre-war population
- The Syrian Civil War is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with local and foreign allies, and various domestic and international forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations
- The civil unrest in Syria, was eventually triggered by a wider wave of the 2011 Arab Spring protests
- it grew out of discontent with the authoritarian Syrian regime and escalated to an armed conflict
RED Areas
- The Syrian Arab Republic and Syrian Armed Forces are supported militarily by Iran, Russia, and the Libanon based Hezbollah
- Kurdish forces (Rojava) control the de facto autonomous region in northeastern Syria
- The main cities under Kurdish control are Raqqa, Qamishli, and Al Hasakah
Light GREEN Areas
- Rebel forces
- other factions of the Syrian Opposition
- Turkish occupation of northern Syria, including rebel forces of the Syrian Interim Government (in exile), the Free Syrian Army
- Israel occupied Golan Heights

A map of Syria showing the shifting territories of the various forces warring in the country and beyond.

Sri Lanka

About Sri Lanka
- Sri Lanka FlagThe map shows Sri Lanka, an independent island state, consisting of a main island and some small islands.
- The island nation is located 30 km (19 mi) southeast of the southern coast of India in the Indian Ocean, between the Laccadive Sea in the west and the Bay of Bengal in the east.
- In 1948, British Ceylon was granted independence.
- In 1972 the island became a republic within the Commonwealth, and its name was changed to Sri Lanka.
- The country shares maritime borders with the Maldives and India.
- With an area of 65,610 km² Sri Lanka is somewhat larger than twice the size of Belgium or slightly larger than the U.S. state West Virginia.
- Sri Lanka's landscape is mostly low with flat to rolling coastal plains.
- In the south-central interior of the island is a mountainous region.
- There is the country's highest mountain Pidurutalagala, (Mount Pedro) at 2,524 m.
- The island has a tropical climate moderated by ocean winds.
- Sri Lanka has a population of 21.7 million people (in 2019).
- The official capital is Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte; the largest city and administrative capital is Colombo.
- Spoken languages are Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%.
- About 10% of the population speak English as a second language.
- The map shows the island of Sri Lanka with provincial capitals, major cities and towns, main roads, railroads, and major airports.
Cities and towns in Sri Lanka
- Elephant Pass (Gateway to Jaffna), Jaffna (capital of the Northern Province), Kankesanturai, Kayts, Kilinochchi, Madhu Road, Manjulam, Mannar, Mullaittivu, Nedunkeni, Point Pedro, Puliyankulam, Puthukkudiyiruppu, Silavatturai, Talaimannar, Vavuniya, Vellankulam
- Anuradhapura (one of the ancient capitals, today capital of North Central Province), Habarane, Hamillewa, Horuwupotana, Kebitigollewa, Kekirawa, Maragahewa, Medawachchiya, Polonnaruwa
- Pannala, Kuliyapitiya, Kurunegala, Chilaw, Ganewatta, Maho, Anamaduwa, Galgamuwa, Puttalam, Kalpitiya, Pomparippu
- Amparai, Batticaloa, Chenkaladi, Kalmunai, Kantalai, Kathiraveli, Kehelula, Kumana, Maha Oya, Mutur, Nilaveli, Okanda, Paddiruppu, Pankulam, Pottuvil, Pulmoddai, Tirrukkovil, Trincomalee, Uhana, Valachchenai
- Dambula, Kandy (second largest city in the country), Matale, Naula, Nuwara Eliya
- Akuressa, Ambalangoda, Galle, Hambontota, Kirinda, Matara, Tangalla, Tissamaharama, Udugama
- Beruwala, Colombo (major seaport, largest city and cultural center of Sri Lanka), Gampaha, Horana, Ja-Ela, Kalutara, Matugama, Moratuwa, Mount Lavinia, Negombo, Panadura, Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (New Capital Territory, seat of the Parliament of Sri Lanka and de jure capital)
- Balangoda, Embilipitiya, Kegalla, Pelmadulla, Rakwana, Ratnapura (the "City of Gems", famous for the trade of precious stones, capital city of Sabaragamuwa Province)
- Badulla (capital, known for tea trade), Bibile, Buttala, Haputale, Kataragama, Monaragala, and Telulla.
Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka - tea plantations


About Tajikistan
- Map is showing Tajikistan, a landlocked republic in central Asia, north of Afghanistan, southeast of Uzbekistan and south of Kyrgyzstan, it borders China in east
- With an area of 143,100 km², the country is less than half the size of Italy, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Wisconsin
- Tajikistan has a population of 8.35 million people (in 2015)
- Capital and largest city is Dushanbe (Душанбе). Spoken languages are Tajik (official) and Russian
- Tajikistan's landscape is mountainous, dominated by the Pamir and the Alay Mountains
- Peak Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m (24,590 ft)  in the Pamir range is the highest peak in the country

The energy capital: Dushanbe in Tagikistan


About Taiwan
- Map is showing Taiwan, an island country north of the Philippines and off the southeastern coast of China separated by the Taiwan Strait
- Official name is Republic of China, it consists of the main island, formerly known as Formosa, and several small islands scattered across South China Sea as far as the Spratly Islands
- Other island groups administered by Taiwan are Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu
- With an area of 36,188 km² Taiwan is slightly larger than Belgium or slightly smaller than the U.S. states of Maryland and Delaware combined
- Taiwan has a population of 23.5 million (2015); capital city is Taipei, largest city is New Taipei City, an urban agglomeration that surrounds Taipei
- Spoken languages are Mandarin Chinese (Putonghua; official) and Taiwanese (Taiwanese Hokkien), regional languages are Hakka and Formosan languages
- Taiwan shares maritime borders with China, Japan, and the Philippines

A Taiwan landscape


About Thailand
- Thailand is a Kingdom in Southeast Asia.
- It is bordered in west and northwest by Myanmar (Burma), in south west by the Andaman Sea, in east and north east by Lao PDR, in south east by Cambodia, in south by the Gulf of Thailand (an inlet of the South China Sea), and by Malaysia.
- In south the country occupies a part of the Malay Peninsula.
- Thailand shares also maritime borders with India, Indonesia and Vietnam.
- With an area of 513,120 km², the country is slightly larger than Spain or slightly more than twice the size of the U.S. state Wyoming.
- Until 1939 the country was known as Siam.
- Thailand has a population of 68 million people (2015).
- Capital and by far its largest city is Bangkok.
- Spoken language is Thai (official), some English in tourist regions.
- Thailand has two principal river systems, the Chao Phraya and the Mekong river, these rivers are crucial for the irrigation for Thailand's rich agricultural economy.
- Doi Inthanon with 2,565 m (8,415 ft), is the highest mountain in Thailand.
- Thailand is the second most visited tourist destination in the Asia-Pacific region with almost 30 million international tourist arrivals, only surpassed by China with 57 million arrivals (2015).
- Principal airport of Thailand is Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport (IATA code: BKK), other major airports are: Bangkok's Don Muang Airport (IATA code: DMK), Chiang Mai International Airport (IATA code: CNX), Chiang Rai International Airport (IATA code: CEI), Phuket International Airport (IATA code: HKT), and U-Tapao International Airport (IATA code: UTP).

Thailand northern mountains landscape

Timor Leste

About Timor-Leste
- Timor-Leste, also known as East Timor, is a relative new nation situated in the eastern half of the island of Timor, at the eastern 'end' of the Lesser Sunda Islands, north of the Timor Sea and Australia.
- The country is bordered by Indonesia in west and the Savu Sea in north.
- The country occupies an area of 14,874 km², including the islands of Pulau Acrobat and Paula Jaco, compared it is about half the size of Belgium, or slightly larger than the Bahamas.
- The nation has a population of 1.2 million people (in 2015)
- Capital and largest city is Dili
- Spoken languages are Tetuma and Portuguese (both official), Indonesian, English.
- The population in 1975, when the Portuguese left, was 680,000 - 97% Timorese (including mestizos), 2% Chinese, under 1% Portuguese.
- The population today is about 1.16 million people - 78% Timorese, 2% Chinese, 20% Indonesian.
- East Timor has a common boundary with West Timor, which is part of Indonesia, the former Dutch East Indies.
- For centuries the East Timorese had been farmers, living in scattered hamlets and eating what they grew.
- Only a few coastal East Timorese were fishermen.
- Trading and shop keeping had for generations been in the hands of the Chinese.
- East Timor is extremely mountainous, so the majority of East Timorese had always lived in isolation, far from cities, foreign influences and - formal education, tied to their fields and animistic practices.
- In spite of centuries of Catholic missionary work by the Portuguese, in 1975 animists still numbered as much as 72 % of the population.
- The local Timorese kings still played an important part in their lives and allegiances, whilst interference from Portuguese administrators and military was almost non-existent. (Source: Timor Today)
- In 2016 Australia is forced to take part in conciliation at the Hague over a disputed maritime boundary in relation to an area that contains an estimated $40bn worth of oil and gas.
- Rich Australia has resisted negotiating a permanent border until 2056 at the earliest.
Timor Est

Timor Leste, Dili view


About Turkey
- The map shows Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, a country on the Anatolian peninsula in western Asia with a small enclave in Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe
- The main portion of the Turkish state is located on the Anatolia peninsula, also known as Asia Minor, the westernmost part of Asia
- Turkey is a unitary state with a central government
- Turkey is bounded by the Aegean Sea in the west, by the Mediterranean Sea in the south and by the Black Sea in the north
- The country is bordered by Armenia, Iran, and Azerbaijan (exclave of Nakhchivan) in the east, by Georgia in the northeast, by Bulgaria and Greece in the northwest, and by Iraq, and Syria in the southeast
- Turkey shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Egypt, Northern Cyprus, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine
- There are two narrow straits in northwestern Turkey, the Bosporus, which connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, which connect the Aegean arm of the Mediterranean Sea with the Sea of Marmara
- The highest mountain in Turkey is Ağrı Dağı or Mount Ararat at 5,137 m (16,854 ft)
- With an area of 783,562 km², the country is more than twice the size of Germany or slightly smaller than the U.S. states of Texas and Louisiana combined
- Turkey has a population of 83 million people (in 2020), largest city is Istanbul, the second-largest city and the national capital is Ankara, spoken languages are Turkish (official), Kurdish, and Arabic
Turkey Regions Map
- Map of administrative regions of Turkey, this regions are fairly conform to the geographical regions of the country.
- The country is subdivided into 81 provinces and further divided in 957 districts.
- The Marmara region in the northwestern part of the country is situated on both continents, Europe and Asia.
- It is the most densely populated region in the country.
- Turkey's largest city Istanbul is located within the area.
- The Marmara region was home to the city of Troy.
- The Archaeological Site of Troyofficial website is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- The Black Sea region is a long stretched mountainous region along the Black Sea with a predominantly rural population.
- Major cities are Samsun, a Black Sea port, the port city of Zonguldak, and Trabzon, a main port on the historical Silk Road was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond.
- The Aegean region shares much of the history of Ancient Greece, home to the city-states of Ephesus, Miletus, and Halicarnassus (today Bodrum).
- The Aegean region is also one of Turkey's prominent tourism centers.
- The Mediterranean region is a mountainous strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea.
- The Taurus mountain range in the region separates the Mediterranean coastal area from the Anatolian Plateau.
- Alanya and Antalya are two popular resort towns on the eastern portion of the Turkish Riviera in the country's Mediterranean region.
- Central Anatolia is the heartland of Turkey.
- The historical region is home to the country's capital Ankara and other major cities like Konya and Kayseri.
- Also located in central Anatolia is Cappadocia, the ancient region between Lake Tuz and the Euphrates, famous for its "fairy chimneys".
- The landscape where erosion shaped the soft volcanic rock into thousands of strangely shaped towers is now a hangout for hot-air balloons.
- Mountainous Southeast Anatolia is also known as Turkish Kurdistan.
- It borders Syria in the south, and Iraq in the southeast.
- In ancient times Southeast Anatolia was part of the historical region of northwestern Mesopotamia, the site of the earliest urban civilizations.
- There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Southeast Anatolia, Nemrut Dağ (Mount Nemrut)
- erected on its summit are a number of large statues surrounding the mausoleum of Antiochus I (69–34 B.C.), who reigned over the Commagene kingdom.
- The archaeological site of Göbekli Tepe presents monumental T-shaped pillars.
- The world’s oldest stone structures were erected by an unknown civilization between 9,600 and 8,200 BCE, a time that predates Stonehenge by 6,000 years.
- The Eastern Anatolia region is the easternmost part of Turkey
- it was formerly part of Western Armenia.
- It is Turkey's region with the lowest population density.
- The main economic activity is agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Main urban centers are Agri (Ağrı), a city with an agriculture industry, Van, a major city near the Turkish border with Iran lies on the shores of Lake Van, the largest lake in Turkey and one of the world's largest lakes with no outlet.
- Erzurum is a university town and a popular winter sports destination in Turkey.
Turkish cities
Izmir, the largest city in the Aegean Region is a seaport and a naval base on an inlet of the Aegean Sea.
Bursa is the capital of Bursa province situated 30 km south of the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara along the foothills of Mount Uludag
- it was the capital of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire from 1326 to 1402
- Bursa and Cumalıkızık: the Birth of the Ottoman Empireofficial website is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Adana, the largest city in the Mediterranean Region and capital of the Adana province
Gaziantep, a city with an ancient history is situated about 120 km (75 mi) north of Aleppo, Syria
- The city is famous for its gastronomy
Konya, an industrial city in central Anatolia.
- Konya is famous for its Whirling Dervishes (Sufi).
- The city was the Seljuk capital (Sultanate of Rum) towards the end of the 11th century and became later the capital of the Ottoman province of Karaman Eyalet
- Antalya is located on Anatolia's southwest coast, known as the Turkish Riviera. Antalya province is the center of Turkey's tourism industry and one of the Mediterranean's leading tourism destinations
Kayseri is an industrialized city in Central Anatolia, and the trailhead for the tourist attractions in Cappadocia.
Turchia Turchia

Pamukkale landscapes and an ancient city in Cappadocia


About Turkmenistan
- Map is showing Turkmenistan, a republic in central Asia that became independent in 1991 following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
- The country lies east of the Caspian Sea, south of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and north of Iran and Afghanistan.
- The Turkmen-Khorasan Mountain Range (Kopet Dag) in south west separates the country from Iran.
- Highest mountain is Aýrybaba with 3, 138 m (10,295 ft), situated in the Köýtendag Range along the border with Uzbekistan.
- Turkmenistan's landscape is dominated by the Turan Depression, a low-lying desert basin, and the Karakum Desert which covers 75% of the country’s area of 488,100 km².
- Compared the country is somewhat smaller than Spain, or slightly larger than the US state of California.
- Turkmenistan is sparsely populated, with a population of just 5.4 million people. Capital and largest city is Ashgabat (Aşgabat).
- Ethnic groups are Turkmen (85%) Uzbek (5%) and Russian (4%).
- Spoken languages are Turkmen (official) and Russian (as an inter-ethnic language).
- Main religions are Muslim 84%, Eastern Orthodox 17%.

Turkmenistan, the lost city of Merv


About Uzbekistan
- Map is showing Uzbekistan, a landlocked republic in Central Asia that lies south and southeast of the Aral Sea, south of Kazakhstan, north of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan, Tajikistan is bordering in south east, Kyrgyzstan in east.
- The landscape of Uzbekistan is dry with mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert, inclusive dunes.
- The Kyzyl Kum (Red Sand), a large desert stretches across most of the country.
- Only about 10% of the country's area is intensively cultivated with irrigated land in river valleys and oases.
- Highest point in Uzbekistan is the Khazret Sultan, at 4,643 m (15,233 ft), the mountain is located on the border with Tajikistan, north west of Dushanbe in the southern part of the Gissar Mountain Range.
- Main rivers are Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshan River.
- With an area of 447,400 km², Uzbekistan is about the size of Sweden, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of California.
- The country has a population of 31 million people (in 2015).
- Capital and largest city is Tashkent (Тошкент).
- Spoken languages are Uzbek and Russian.

Uzbekistan, on the Silk Road


About Vietnam
- The map shows Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, a country in Mainland Southeast Asia.
- The nation is situated on the eastern part of the Indochinese Peninsula with a coastline along the South China Sea.
- It borders China in the north, it has a long border with Laos, and it borders Cambodia in the southwest.
- Vietnam shares maritime borders with Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand.
- The long stretched country covers an area of 331,689 km², compared it is about half the size of France, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of New Mexico.
- Vietnam has a population of 94 million people (est. 2018), the national capital is Hanoi, the largest city is Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
- Spoken language is Vietnamese.
- The main geographic feature in the north of Vietnam is the fertile delta of the Red River, the region where the cities of Hanoi and Hai Phong are situated.
- The coastal area to the east from Hanoi is famous for Halong Bay; the bay features thousands of limestone islands and islets in various shapes and sizes.
- Junk boats bring en masse tourists to the "new Seven Wonders of Nature." However, Ha Long Bay is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- To the north of the Red River Delta is the mountainous Northwest region of Vietnam bordering China.
- Lào Cai and Sa Pa are two important towns and popular tourist destinations in the Hoàng Liên Son Mountains.
- The mountains are the location of Fansipan (Phan Xi Păng), the highest peak in the Indochinese Peninsula at 3,143 m (10,312 ft).
- In Central Vietnam, between the cities of Vinh and Da Nang, you will find a narrow stretch of coastal plains with the Annamite Range (Dãy Trường Sơn) on one side and the South China Sea on the other.
- The plains are the location of Hue, the former seat of Vietnam's royal Nguyen Dynasty and for some times (1802-1945) the capital of Vietnam.
- To the southwest of Da Nang are Vietnam's Central Highlands (Tây Nguyên), a series of contiguous plateaus covering central-western Vietnam, a southern portion of Laos and a corner in northeastern Cambodia.
- The southern part of Vietnam is dominated by the Mekong Delta, the "Nine Dragon river delta," where the Mekong River spreads out into an extensive delta before it empties into the South China Sea.
- The delta is the site of the country's largest city Ho Chi Minh City, formerly known as Saigon.

Vietnam, the Bai Dinh pagoda


About Yemen
- The map shows Yemen, a desert country in the Middle East on the south-western portion of the Arabian Peninsula.
- The country is bounded in the west by the Red Sea, in the southwest by the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait, and in the south by the Gulf of Aden.
- Yemen borders Saudi Arabia in the north and Oman in the east.
- The country also shares maritime borders with the African nations of Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia.
- Yemen occupies an area of 527,970 km² (including the islands of Perim and Socotra), compared it is slightly smaller than Metropolitan France or about twice the size of the US state of Wyoming.
- Yemen has a population of estimated 27.5 million people.
- The capital and largest city is Sana'a.
- Due to the control of Sana'a by Houthi rebels, the Yemeni seat of government moved first to Aden and in 2019 to Seiyun (Saywun) in the Hadhramaut region in the center of the country.
- Spoken language is Yemeni Arabic.
- The main religion is Islam
- two principal Islamic religious groups are present in the country, followers of Shia Islam predominantly inhabit the region between Sa'dah, the former capital Sana'a and Dhamar, the population in the coastal areas are mainly adherents of Sunni Islam.
Geography of Yemen
- Yemen covers the most mountainous portion of the Arabian Peninsula.
- The Asir mountains and their foothills dominate the western part of the country.
- Between the Red Sea and the mountains is the Tihamah, a narrow semidesert coastal plain, part of the Arabian Peninsula's coastal fog desert ecoregion which stretches further along the southern coast of the country.
- The Rub' al-Khali, the largest contiguous sand desert, also known as the Empty Quarter, reaches into the northeastern part of the country.
- In the southeast of Yemen, there are the Mahra mountains (Jabal Mahra) with elevations up to 1300 m.
- The country's interior is dominated by mountains ranging from a few hundred meters up to the country’s highest point, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb at 3,666 m (12,028 ft).
- The hills can be distinguished into the western highlands with relatively fertile soil and sufficient rainfall, and the central highland, more like a plateau of about 2,000-3,200 meters, with rolling hills, small mountains, and some very prominent peaks.
- The central highlands are drier than the western highlands because of rain-shadow influences but still receives sufficient rain in wet years for extensive cropping.
- Yemen has no permanent rivers.
- The highland regions are interspersed with wadis, valleys with seasonal formed rivers
- those rivers run almost completely dry in the summer months
- Notable is the Wadi Hadhramaut (Hadramawt) in southern central Yemen, the upper parts of the wadi contain alluvial soil and floodwaters, and the lower part is barren and mostly uninhabited
- Most of the northern part of the country is covered by the "Empty Quarter" (Ar Rub' al Khali), one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula
- Ramlat al-Sab`atayn is another desert region in central Yemen and a sparsely populated area
- Further northeast is the vast Ramlat Dahm, a desert region and part of the "Empty Quarter."

Yemen landscape